Battery – Law of Torts – Notes

Battery – It is an intentional tort. Application of force on another without any lawful justification is called a battery. It has three elements:-

  • Reasonable apprehension of threat.
  • Intention to use force.
  • Capacity to cause injury.

Stanley v. Powell ([1891] 1 QB 86 )- Powell, who was the member of a shooting party, fired at a pheasant but the pellet from his gun glanced off a tree and accidentally wounded Stanley, another member of the party. It was held that Powell was not liable. If the act is willful or negligent, the defendant would be liable.

Letang v. Cooper ([1964] 2 All ER 292) – Plaintiff was having a sunbath in the parking lot when defendant riding on a motorbike crushed his legs. Since there was no intention on part of the defendant the plaintiff’s motion failed.

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Law of Torts (Short Notes)

Law of Torts (Short Notes)

Do check out our free Android App on Law of Torts.



False Imprisonment



Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress

Malicious Prosecution


Defenses in Law of Torts
– Contributory Negligence
– Inevitable Accident
– Act of God
– Mistake
– Necessity
– Liability of State
– Private Defense
– Volenti Non Fit Injuria


Some Other Concepts
– Vicarious Liability
–  Attractive Nuisance Doctrine
–  Tender Years
– Res Ipsa Loquitur

You can grab notes for other law subjects from here.

Assault – Law of Torts – Notes

Assault  – It is an intentional tort where the defendant act is intended to cause reasonable apprehension of an imminent harmful or offensive contact in plaintiff’s mind. An assault is an attempt or offer, by force or violence to do a corporal curt another as, by pointing a pitchfork at him when standing within reach presenting a gun at him with shooting distance, drawing a sword and waving it in a menacing manner.

Read v. Coker [(1853) 13 CB 850] – In this case, the plaintiff was a tenant of the defendant. The defendant called thugs who pulled up their sleeves and showed their fist and then asked the plaintiff to leave the defendant’s garage.  The court held that the act of pulling up of sleeves and showing of fist constituted assault.

Innes v. Wylie – In this case, a policeman unlawfully prevented the plaintiff from entering the club premises. It was held that “if the policeman was entirely passive like a door or a wall put to prevent from entering the room,” there was no assault.

Continue to learn more about the Law of Torts by clicking here. You can grab notes for other law subjects from here.

Law School Notes

  1. Law of Torts (Short Notes)
  2. Jurisprudence
  3. Canadian Securities Regulation – Best material to have an in-depth understanding of Capital markets irrespective of what jurisdiction you are based in. Especially helpful if you are an Indian law student owing to lack of good material covering the fundamentals. OCRed text, might suffer from few readability issues.
  4. Constitution – I (Fundamental Rights & Basic Structure)
  5. Constitution – II (Federalism, and Government)
  6. Law of Contracts II – Short Notes
  7. Code of Criminal Procedure – CrPC Notes (Contributed by Nisha Raman, JGLS)
  8. Intellectual Property Rights – Case Briefs Only
  9. Corporate Law – Case Briefs Only
  10. Law of Evidence
  11. Code of Civil Procedure – Case Briefs Only
  12. Environment Law Notes – Short Notes
  13. Interpretation of Statutes – Short Notes 
  14. Labour Law 1


Floral Dissection

Aim: Study and discuss the given flowering plants and give its floral formula

Requirement: Flower, Forceps, Blade, Slides, Cover Slip, Microscope, Tape


Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Anglospervae

Class: Monocot

Family: Liliaceae

Genus: lilium

Species: Candidum

Overay: Trilocular

Root: Advertitious Root

Stem: Herbaceous, erect

Tepals: 6 in number

Infloresnce: Racenose or umbel

Flower: Bracteate, bisoual, actionopic

Floral Formula

Br ⊕♀P3+3 A3 G(3)

floral dissection

This website also contains other Class XI Practicals on BiologyPhysics, and Chemistry.