Oil from Aniseed – Chemistry Project

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Introduction 4
II. Experiment 8
III. Observation 10
IV. Bibliography 11

INTRODUCTION

We are all familiar with the pleasant odours coming out from flowers, spices and many trees. The essence or aromas of plants are due to volatile oils present in them. These smelling volatile oils present in plants are called essential oils. Cinnamon, clove, cumin, eucalyptus, garlic, jasmine, peppermint, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, thyme, wintergreen are a few familiar examples of valuable essential oils. The term “essential oils” literally means “oils derived from the essence” of plants.

Essential oils are mainly used for their pleasant odours and flavours in perfumes and as flavouring agents in foods. Some are used in medicines (e.g., camphor, wintergreen, eucalyptus) others as insect repellents (e.g., citronella). Chemically essential oils are composed of complex mixtures of ester, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. They are essentially non-polar compounds and are thus soluble in non-polar solvents such as petroleum ether, benzene etc. Essential oils may occur in all parts of the plant, but they are often concentrated in the seeds or flowers. They are obtained from the plants by the process of steam distillation and extraction. The technique of steam distillation permits the separation of volatile components from non-volatile materials without raising the temperature of the distillation above 100° C.

Thus steam distillation reduces the risk of decomposition of essential oils.

ANISEED ESSENTIAL OIL

Aniseed Plant

Aniseed, on steam distillation, yields an essential oil, known as Oil of Aniseed`, which has now replaced the fruits for medicinal and flavouring purposes. Aniseed oil is a colourless or pale-yellow liquid having the characteristic odour and taste of the fruit.
The yield of oil generally varies from 1.9 to 3.1 per cent. Higher values up to 6 per cent have been reported from Syrian aniseed. Crushing of fruits prior to distillation gives better yields of oil. The material should be distilled soon after the crushing to prevent any loss of oil due to evaporation. Aniseed oil is a highly refractive liquid, which solidifies on cooling. The congealing point depends much on the anethole content and is a valuable criterion for evaluating the oil. Exposure of the oil to air causes polymerization, and some oxidation also takes place with the formation of anisaldehyde and anisic acid.

The chief constituent of aniseed oil is anethole, which is present to the extent of 80 to 90 per cent and is mainly responsible for the characteristic flavour of the oil. The oil also contains methyl chavicol, p-methoxyphenyl acetone, and small amount of terpenes and sulphur containing compounds of disagreeable odour.

Aniseed Essential Oil

Common Method of Extraction:- Steam Distillation

Color:- Clear

Botanical Name:- Pimpinella anisum

Aromatic Description:- Distinctive scent of licorice. Rich and sweet.

Constituents:- a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, linalool, cis-anethole, trans-anethole, safrole, anisaldehyde, acetoanisole.

Uses of Aniseed Oil:-

  • Ø In aromatherapy, aniseed essential oil is used to treat colds and flu.
  • Ø Aniseed oil can be made into a liquid scent and is used for both hunting and fishing. It is put on fishing lures to attract fish.
  • Ø Anethole, the principal component of anise oil, is a precursor that can eventually produce 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde which is can be used in the clandestine synthesis of psychedelic drugs such as 2C-B, 2C-I and DOB.
  • Ø Oil of aniseed is also reported to be used as an aromatic carminative to relieve flatulence, and as an ingredient of cough lozenges in combination with liquorice.
  • Ø Essential oil is also used externally as an insecticide against small insects such as head lice, mites and vermin. It also has fungicidal properties.

EXPERIMENT

REQUIREMENTS:-

Steam generator (Copper Vessel), round bottom flask (500 ml), conical flask, condenser, glass tubes, iron stand, sand bath, separatory funnel, tripod stands, burners, Ajwain(Carum), Petroleum ether(60-80°C), Saunf(Aniseed) .

PROCEDURE:-

  1. Set the apparatus as shown in the picture of Experimental Setup. The apparatus consists of a steam generator connected to the round bottom flask through a glass inlet tube. The flask is connected to a water condenser through a glass outlet tube. Condenser is further attached to a receiver through an adaptor.
  2. Take about 750 ml of water in the steam generator and start heating to produce steam.
  3. In the round bottom flask take about 75 gm of crushed saunf.
  4. A vigorous current of steam from steam generator is passed through the round bottom flask.
  5. A part of the steam condenses in the round bottom flask. As more and more steam is passed, the steam volatile components of saunf pass through the condenser along with steam. These contents on condensation are collected in the receiver.
  6. The contents in the round bottom flask may be heated by a Bunsen burner to prevent excessive condensation of steam.
  7. The process of steam distillation is continued for about half an hour.
  8. Transfer the distillate to a separating funnel and extract with 20 ml portions of petroleum ether 3 times.
  9. Combine the petroleum ether extracts in a 250 ml conical flask and dry it with the help of anhydrous sodium sulphate.
  10. Remove the solvent from the dried filtrate by careful distillation in a water bath. The essential oil is left behind in the distillation flask.
  11. Find the weight of the extracted essential oil. Note the colour, odour and weight of the essential oil.

OBSERVATIONS:-

1.) Saunf (Aniseed):-

Weight of Saunf taken        = 100 gm

Initial Weight of the bottle = 10gm(x)

Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11.25 gm(y)

Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1.25 gm

Percentage of essential oil = (y/100)*100=1.25 %

Colour of the oil    = Colourless

Odour of the oil = Saunf like smell.

2.) Ajwain (Carum):-

Weight of Saunf taken        = 75 gm

Initial Weight of the bottle = 10 gm(x)

Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11 gm(y)

Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1 gm

Percentage of essential oil = (y/75)*100=1.33%

Colour of the oil    = Colourless

Odour of the oil = Ajwain like smell.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Comprehensive Chemistry Practical Class-XII.
  • http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/aniseed.htm

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Saturated Solutions Measuring Solubility – Chemistry Project

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Objective 4
II. Introduction 4
III. Materials And Equipments 8
IV. Experimental Procedure 9
V. Observation 10
VI. Conclusion 11
VII. Precaution 12
VIII. Bibliography 13

Objective:

The goal of this project is to measure the solubilities of some common chemicals:

  • Table salt (NaCl)
  • Epsom salts (MgSO4)
  • sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11).

Introduction

A good part of the substances we deal with in daily life, such as milk, gasoline, shampoo, wood, steel and air are mixtures. When the mixture is homogenous, that is to say, when its components are intermingled evenly, it is called a solution. There are various types of solutions, and these can be categorized by state (gas, liquid, or solid).

The chart below gives some examples of solutions in different states. Many essential chemical reactions and natural processes occur in liquid solutions, particularly those containing water (aqueous solutions) because so many things dissolve in water. In fact, water is sometimes referred to as the universal solvent. The electrical charges in water molecules help dissolve different kinds of substances. Solutions form when the force of attraction between solute and solvent is greater than the force of attraction between the particles in the solute.

Two examples of such important processes are the uptake of nutrients by plants, and the chemical weathering of minerals. Chemical weathering begins to take place when carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rainwater. A solution called carbonic acid is formed. The process is then completed as the acidic water seeps into rocks and dissolves underground limestone deposits.
Sometimes, the dissolving of soluble minerals in rocks can even lead to the formation of caves.

If one takes a moment to consider aqueous solutions, one quickly observes that they exhibit many interesting properties. For example, the tap water in your kitchen sink does not freeze at exactly 0°C. This is because tap water is not pure water; it contains dissolved solutes. Some tap water, commonly known as hard water, contains mineral solutes such as calcium carbonate, magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride, and iron sulphate. Another interesting solution property is exhibited with salt and ice.

Another example comes from the fact that salt is spread on ice collected on roads in winters. When the ice begins to melt, the salt dissolves in the water and forms salt water. The reason is that with the addition of salt the melting point of water increases and as a result the snow melts away faster.

Even some organisms have evolved to survive freezing water temperatures with natural “antifreeze.” Certain arctic fish have blood containing a high concentration of a specific protein. This protein behaves like a solute in a solution and lowers the freezing point of the blood. Going to the other end of the spectrum, one can also observe that the boiling point of a solution is affected by the addition of a solute. These two properties, namely freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation, are called colligative properties (properties that depend on the number of molecules, but not on their chemical nature).

Basic Concepts

A saturated solution is a mixture in which no more solute can be practically dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature. It is said practical because theoretically infinite amount of solute can be added to a solvent, but after a certain limit the earlier dissolved solute particles start rearranging and come out at a constant rate. Hence overall it appears that no solute is dissolved after a given amount of solute is dissolved. This is known as a saturated solution.

In an unsaturated solution, if solute is dissolved in a solvent the solute particles dissociate and mix with the solvent without the re-arrangement of earlier dissolved solute particles.

Solubility depends on various factors like the Ksp of the salt, bond strength between the cation and anion, covalency of the bond, extent of inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, polarity, dipole moment etc. Out of these the concepts of H-bonding, covalency , ionic bond strength and polarity play a major role if water is taken as a solvent.

Also physical conditions like temperature and pressure also play very important roles as they affect the kinetic energy of the molecules.

Materials and Equipment

To do this experiment following materials and equipment are required:

  • Distilled water
  • Metric liquid measuring cup (or graduated cylinder)
  • Three clean glass jars or beakers
  • Non-iodized table salt (NaCl)
  • Epsom salts (MgSO4)
  • Sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11)
  • Disposable plastic spoons
  • Thermometer
  • Three shallow plates or saucers
  • Oven
  • Electronic kitchen balance (accurate to 0.1 g)

Experimental Procedure

Determining Solubility

1. Measure 100 mL of distilled water and pour into a clean, empty beaker or jar.

2. Use the kitchen balance to weigh out the suggested amount (see below) of the solute to be tested.

a.   50 g Non-iodized table salt (NaCl)

b.    50 g Epsom salts (MgSO4)

c.   250 g Sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11)

3. Add a small amount of the solute to the water and stir with a clean disposable spoon until dissolved.

4. Repeat this process, always adding a small amount until the solute will no longer dissolve.

5. Weigh the amount of solute remaining to determine how much was added to the solution.

6. Try and add more solute at the same temperature and observe changes if any.

7. Now heat the solutions and add more solute to the solutions.

Observations:

Salt Amount of salt dissolved in 100mL water to make saturated solution. Moles dissolved
NaCl (Non-iodized 36.8 grams 0.7
common salt)
MgSO4 32.7 grams 0.255
C12H22O11 (sucrose) 51.3 grams 0.15

Adding more solute at the same temperature to the saturated solutions yielded no significant changes in NaCl and Epsom salt. However, at all temperatures the saturation point of sucrose could not be obtained exactly as due to the large size of the molecule the solution became thick and refraction was more prominent. Neglecting this observation in the room for error, the experiments agreed with the theory.

Adding more solute to heated solutions increased the solubility in all the 3 cases. The largest increase was shown by NaCl, followed by Epsom salt and sucrose. These facts too agreed with the theory as at high temperatures the kinetic energy of molecules increases and the collisions are more effective.

Conclusions:

The solubility of NaCl is the highest as it an ionic salt and easily dissociates in water. Also since the size of both the cation and

anion are small, the collisions are more and hence the probability of dissociation is high. The solubility of MgSO4 is also high as it is also an ionic salt, but due to a larger anion, collisions are not

very effective. The solubility of C12H22O11 is the least as it a very large molecule due to which hydrogen bonding with the water

molecules is not very effective. Also due to the large number of carbon and oxygen atoms, inter molecular H-bonding is more dominant than intramolecular H-bonding.

Precautions:

  1. While adding the solute to the solvent, the solution should be stirred slowly so as to avoid the formation of any globules.
  2. Stirring should not be vigorous as the kinetic energy of the molecules might change due to which solubility can increase.
  3. While stirring, contact with the walls of the container should be avoided as with every collision, an impulse is generated which makes the dissolved solute particles rearrange themselves. As a result solubility can decrease.
  4. The temperature while conducting all the three experiments should be approximately same.
  5. Epsom salt should be first dried in order to remove the water of crystallization (MgSO4.7H2O).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • NCERT CHEMISTRY XII
  • ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009

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Green Chemistry – Biodiesel – Chemistry Project

Bio diesel

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Introduction 3
II. Requirement 7
III. Experiment 1 8
IV. Requirement 9
V. Experiment 2 10
VI. Precaution 11
VII. Bibliography 11

INTRODUCTION

Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with developing processes and products to reduce or eliminate hazardous substances. One of the goals of green chemistry is to prevent pollution at its source, as opposed to dealing with pollution after it has occurred.

Principles of Green Chemistry

Prevention

It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created.

Atom Economy

Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses

Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

Designing Safer Chemicals

Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity.

Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries

The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used.

Design for Energy Efficiency

Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

Use of Renewable Feed stocks

A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable.

Reduce Derivatives

Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.

Catalysis

Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

Design for Degradation

Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.

  1. Real-time analysis of Pollution Prevention

Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

  1. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when raw striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called “Bio-diesel”. As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil may be material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered as most potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plant. Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) for production of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presence throughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands, from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land’s water retention capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed any damage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The fact remains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction – trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC (R&D) has been using a laboratory scale plant of 100 kg/day capacity for trans-esterification; designing of larger capacity plants is in the offing. These large plants are useful for centralized production of bio-diesel. Production of bio-diesel in smaller plants of capacity e.g. 5 to 20 kg/day may also be started at decentralized level.

REQUIREMENT

  1. Eye protection
  2. Access to a top pan balance
  3. One 250 cm3 conical flask
  4. Two 100 cm3 beakers
  5. One 100 cm3 measuring cylinder
  6. Five plastic teat pipettes
  7. Distilled or deionised water
  8. 100 cm3 vegetable-based cooking oil
  9. 15 cm3 methanol (highly flammable, toxic by inhalation, if swallowed, and by skin absorption)
  10. 1 cm3 potassium hydroxide solution 50% (corrosive).

EXPERIMENT 1

  1. Measure 100 cm3 of vegetable oil into the 250 cm3 flask. Weigh the flask before and after to determine the mass of oil you used.
  2. Carefully add 15 cm3 of methanol.
  3. Slowly add 1 cm3 of 50% potassium hydroxide.
  4. Stir or swirl the mixture for 10 minutes.
  5. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers.
  6. Carefully remove the top layer (this is impure biodiesel) using a teat pipette.
  7. Wash the product by shaking it with 10 cm3 of distilled or deionised  water.
  8. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers.
  9. Carefully remove the top layer of biodiesel using a teat pipette.
  10. Weigh the amount of biodiesel you have collected and compare it to the amount of vegetable oil you started with.

REQUIREMENT

  • Eye protection
  • Small glass funnel (approximately 7 cm diameter)
  • One 250 cm3 flask
  • Two boiling tubes
  • One two-hole stopper to fit the boiling tubes
  • Filter pump
  • A piece of wide bore glass tubing approximately 10 cm long with two one-hole stoppers to fit
  • A piece of vacuum tubing approximately 35 cm long
  • Two short pieces of glass tubing to fit the one-hole stoppers
  • 5 cm glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper
  • 90o glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper (one leg to extend to bottom of flask)
  • Two stands and clamps
  • Two small metal sample dishes
  • A little sodium hydroxide solution 0.1 mol dm-3 (irritant)

EXPERIMENT 2

  1. Pour 125 cm3 of distilled water into the 250 cm3 flask and add 10 cm3 of universal indicator. Add one drop of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution and gently swirl the flask so that the colour of the solution is violet or at the most basic end of the universal indicator colour range.
  2. Place 10 cm3 of this solution into the boiling tube.
  3. Assemble the apparatus illustrated in Figure 1, attaching it to the filter pump with the vacuum tubing.
  4. Place 2 cm3 of biodiesel onto a wad of mineral wool in the metal sample cup.
  5. Turn on the water tap so the filter pump pulls air through the flask and ignite the biodiesel. Position the funnel directly over the burning fuel, so as to capture the fumes from the burning fuel.  Mark or note the position of the tap handle so you can run the pump at the same flow rate later in the experiment.
  6. Allow the experiment to run until the universal indicator turns yellow and time how long this takes.
  7. Record what happens in the funnel and in the glass tube containing the second piece of mineral wool.

PRECAUTION

  • Wear eye protection.
  • Methanol is flammable and poisonous.
  • Potassium hydroxide is corrosive.
  • Take care if you have to insert glass tubing into the stoppers yourself. Make sure that your teacher shows you the correct technique.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.chemistry.org

www.ott.doe.gov/biofuels/environment.html

www.pcra.org

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Testing Presence of Insecticides & Pesticides – Chemistry Project

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Introduction 4
II. Experiment 5
III. Procedure 6
IV. Observation 8
V. Bibliography 8

INTRODUCTION

In the past decade there has been a tremendous increase in the yields of various crops to meet the demand of overgrowing population, achieved by using pesticides and insecticides. These are chemicals that are sprayed over crop to protect it from pests. For example, DDT, BHC, zinc phosphide, Mercuric chloride, dinitrophenol, etc. All pesticides are poisonous chemicals and are used in small quantities with care. Pesticides are proven to be effective against variety of insects, weeds and fungi and are respectively called insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Most of the pesticides are non-biodegradable and remain penetrated as such into plants, fruits and vegetables . From plants they transfer to animals , birds and human beings who eat these polluted fruits and vegetables. Inside the body they get accumulated and cause serious health problems. These days preference is given to biodegradable insecticides like malathion. The presence of Insecticides residues in even raw samples of wheat, fish, meat , butter etc. have aroused the concern of agricultural administrators, scientists and health officials all over the world to put a check over the use of insecticides and to search for non insecticidal means of pest control.

EXPERIMENT

AIM

To study the presence of insecticides or pesticides (nitrogen containing) in various fruits and vegetables.

MATERIALS REQUIRED

Mortar and pestle , beakers, funnel , glass rod , filter paper china dish , water bath, tripod stand, fusion tube, knife, test tube.

Samples of various fruits and vegetables, alcohol, sodium metal, ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate crystals, distilled water and dil. Sulphuric acid.

PROCEDURE

Take different types of fruits and vegetables and cut them into small pieces separately.

Transfer the cut pieces of various fruits and vegetables into it separately and crush them .

Take different kinds for each kind of fruits and vegetables and place the crushed fruits and vegetables in these beakers and add 100 ml of alcohol to each of these . Stir well and filter.

Collect the filtrate in separate china dishes, Evaporate the alcohol by heating the china dishes one by one over a water bath and let the residue dry in the oven .

Heat a small piece of sodium in a fusion tube , till it melts. Then add one of the above residues from the china dish to this fusion tube and heat it till red hot.

Drop the hot fusion tube in a china dish containing about 10 ml of distilled water. Break the tube and boil the contents of the china dish for about 5 minutes . Cool and filter the solution. Collect the filtrate .

To the filtrate add 1 ml of freshly prepared ferrous sulphate solution and warm the contents.

Then add 2-3 drops of ferric chloride solution and acidify with dilute HCl.

If a blue or green ppt. or colouration is obtained it indicates the presence of nitrogen containing insecticides.

Repeat the test of nitrogen for residues obtained from other fruits and vegetables and record the observation.

OBSERVATIONS

S.no Name of the fruit or

vegetable

Test for the presence

Of nitrogen

(positive or negative)

Presence of insecticide

Or pesticide residues

1. Apple positive yes
2. Grapes positive yes
3. Brinjal positive yes
4. tomato positive yes

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Modern’s ABC of practical chemistry-XII
  2. Comprehensive practical chemistry – XII
  3. NCERT chemistry -XII

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Foaming Capacities of Soaps – Chemistry Project

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Preface 4
II. Introduction 5
III. Theory 6
IV. Requirements 6
V. Procedure 7
VI. Observation 8
VII. Result 8
VIII. Bibliography 10

Preface

Soaps and detergents remove dirt and grease from skin and clothes. But all soaps are not equally effective in their cleaning action. Soaps are the Na and K salts of higher fatty acids such as Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and Oleic acid.

The cleansing action of soaps depends on the solubility of the long alkyl chain in grease and that of the -COONa or the -COOK part in water.

Whenever soap is applied on a dirty wet cloth, the non polar alkyl group dissolves in grease while the polar -COONa part dissolves in water. In this manner, an emulsion is formed between grease and water which appears as foam.

The washing ability of soap depends on foaming capacity, as well as the water used in cleaning. The salts of Ca and Mg disrupt the formation of micelle formation. The presence of such salts makes the water hard and the water is called hard water. These salts thus make the soap inefficient in its cleaning action.

Sodium Carbonate when added to hard water reacts with Ca and Mg and precipitates them out. Therefore sodium carbonate is used in the treatment of hard water.

This project aims at finding the foaming capacity of various soaps and the action of Ca and Mg salts on their foaming capacity.

Introduction

Soap is an anionic surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning, which historically comes either in solid bars or in the form of a viscous liquid. Soap consists of sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids and is obtained by reacting common oils or fats with a strong alkaline in a process known as saponification. The fats are hydrolyzed by the base, yielding alkali salts of fatty acids (crude soap) and glycerol.

The general formula of soap is

Fatty end water soluble end

CH3-(CH2) n – COONa

Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules have both a hydrophilic end, which dissolves in water, as well as a hydrophobic end, which is able to dissolve non polar grease molecules. Applied to a soiled surface, soapy water effectively holds particles in colloidal suspension so it can be rinsed off with clean water. The hydrophobic portion (made up of a long hydrocarbon chain) dissolves dirt and oils, while the ionic end dissolves in water. The resultant forms a round structure called micelle. Therefore, it allows water to remove normally-insoluble matter by emulsification.

Theory:

The foaming capacity of soap depends upon the nature of the soap and its concentration. This may be compared by shaking equal volumes of solutions of different samples having the same concentration with same force for the same amount of time. The solutions are then allowed to stand when the foam produced during shaking disappears gradually. The time taken for the foam to disappear in each sample is determined. The longer the time taken for the disappearance of the foam for the given sample of soap, greater is its foaming capacity or cleansing action.

Requirements:

Five 100ml conical flasks, five test tubes, 100ml measuring cylinder, test tube stand, weighing machine, stop watch.

Chemical Requirements: Five different soap samples, distilled water, tap water.

Procedure:

1. Take five 100ml conical flasks and number them 1,2,3,4,5. Put 16ml of water in each flask and add 8 Gms of soap.

2. Warm the contents to get a solution.

3. Take five test tubes; add 1ml of soap solution to 3ml of water.

Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test tubes.

4. Close the mouth of the test tube and shake vigorously for a minute. Do the same for all test tubes and with equal force.

5. Start the timer immediately and notice the rate of disappearance of 2mm of froth.

Observations:

The following outcomes were noticed at the end of the experiment

Test Tube no Vol. of soap solution Vol. of water added Time taken for disappearance of 2mm
1.    Dove 8ml 16ml 11’42”
2.    Lux 8ml 16ml 3’28”
3.    Tetmosol 8ml 16ml 5’10”
4.    Santoor 8ml 16ml 15’32”
5.    Cinthol 8ml 16ml 9’40”

Result

The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is in the order:

Santoor > Dove > Cinthol > Tetmosol > Lux

From this experiment, we can infer that Santoor has the highest foaming capacity, in other words, highest cleaning capacity.

Lux, on the other hand is found to have taken the least amount of time for the disappearance of foam produced and thus is said to be having the least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity.

Test for hardness in water

Test for Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts in the water supplied

Test for Ca2+ in water

H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)2CO3

No precipitate

Test for Mg2+ in water

H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)3PO4

No precipitate

The tests show negative results for the presence of the salts causing hardness in water. The water used does not contain salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The tap water provided is soft and thus, the experimental results and values hold good for distilled water and tap water.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Parts of this project have been referred from foreign sources and have been included in this investigatory project after editing.

The references of the sources are as follows:

Books:

Together With Lab Manual Chemistry-XII

Comprehensive Chemistry – 12

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Fatty Material of Different Samples of Soap

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Theory 4
II. Procedure 6
III. Observation 7
IV. Conclusion 8
V. Bibliography 8

THEORY

Soap – Soap are the sodium or potassium salt of higher fatty acids. The fatty acid contains long chain of 16-18 carbon atoms.

Structure Of  Soap –

Soap contains two parts:

  1. A long hydrocarbon chain, which is water repelling called a non polar tail.
  2. Anionic part which is water attracting called hydrophobic. It is called polar tail.

Soap may be represented as :

CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2– CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-COONa

Soap are also made from animal fats and vegetable oil. Fats and oils are esters of higher fatty acids are called Glycerides. When oils and fats are heated with a solution of NaOH, they break down to the sodium salt of respective fatty acid soap and glycerol. This process of making soap by hydrolysis of fats and oil with alkalis is called saponification. The soap is separated from the solution by an addition of common salt NaCl. Salt is added to the soap solution to decrease the solubility of soap due to which soap separates out from the solution in the form of solid and starts floating on the surface. The crust of soap thus formed is removed and put it in moulds to get soap cakes. The solution left behind contains glycerol and NaCl.

Limitation Of Soap –

Soap is not suitable for washing clothes with hard water because of the following reasons:

Hard water contains salt of Ca and Mg, when soap is added to hard water, Ca and Mg ions of hard water react with soap forming insoluble Ca and Mg salt of fatty acids.

2C17H35COONA + MgCl2 – (C17H35COO)2 Mg + 2NaCl

2C17H35COONA + MgCl2 – (C17H35COO)2 Ca + 2NaCl

Therefore a lot of soap is washed if water is hard.

When hard water is used, soap forms insoluble precipitates of Ca and Mg salt from which sticks of clothes being washed. Therefore it interfere with the cleansing ability of the soap and makes the cleansing process difficult.

PROCEDURE

  1. Take 10 gm of quantity of each sample in which percentage of fatty material has to be determined.
  2. Prepare the solution of each soap in water. Add 10 to 12 drops of HCl  in each solution and heat the solution for 5 to 10 min.
  3. Fatty matter float on the soap solution surface by forming upper layer and how by filter paper are weighed for titration.
  4. Now collect the fatty material from each solution by filtrate ion and again weigh the filter including filtrate (fatty material) are dissolved in the filtrate (fatty material) in ether for calculating oil materials.
  5. Now take the solution in separating flask on the surface of solution and remove the solution except oily material.
  6. Now, remaining solution is exposed in sunlight to evaporate ether from solution.
  7. Now oily matter can be easily weighed by weighing machine.

OBSERVATION

S.NO. NAME OF

SOAP

WEIGHT OF

FILTER

PAPER (A)

WEIGHT OF

FILTER FATTY

MATERIAL (B)

FATTY

MATERIAL

(B-A)

PERCENTAGE

[ % ]

1.

2.

3.

4.

Santoor

Lux

Lux Int.

Lifebuoy

0.3856

0.2956

0.3203

0.4701

7.5856

7.5956

7.2701

7.2701

7.2

7.3

7.5

6.8

72 %

73 %

75 %

68 %

CONCLUSION

Soap contains alkali matter, which affects our skin and even skin may crack. To maintain the oily and moisture balance on our skin, fatty material required in soap. In general, the fatty matter in soap is approximately 70% to 80% fatty matter below 70% made our skin dry, rough and skin may crack whereas highest percentage [%] of fatty matter above 80% made the soap sticky and oily and washing become very difficult. From the table it is clear that the Lux international is the best soap for bathing purpose because it contains large amount of TFM or maximum percentage[%] of TFM.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

i     Introduction of Chemistry by Comprehensive.

ii     The complete reference Chemistry by S.Chand.

You can find other Chemistry Projects here.

Evaporation – Chemistry Project

 

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Theory 4
II. Experiment 1 8
III. Observation 9
IV. Experiment 2 10
V. Observation 11
VI. Bibliography 12

Theory

Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state.

The thermal motion of a molecule must be sufficient to overcome the surface tension of the liquid in order for it to evaporate, that is, its kinetic energy must exceed the work function of cohesion at the surface. Evaporation therefore proceeds more quickly at higher temperature and in liquids with lower surface tension. Since only a small proportion of the molecules are located near the surface and are moving in the proper direction to escape at any given instant, the rate of evaporation is limited. Also, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid thus decreases.

If the evaporation takes place in a closed vessel, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapour above the liquid. Many of the molecules return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density and pressure of the vapour increases. When the process of escape and return reaches equilibrium, the vapour is said to be “saturated,” and no further change in either vapour pressure and density or liquid temperature will occur.

Factors influencing rate of evaporation:-

1. Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air. If the air already has a high concentration of the substance evaporating, then the given substance will evaporate more slowly.

2. Concentration of other substances in the air. If the air is already saturated with other substances, it can have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating.

3. Temperature of the substance. If the substance is hotter, then evaporation will be faster.

4. Flow rate of air. This is in part related to the concentration points above. If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation. In addition, molecules in motion have more energy than those at rest, and so the stronger the flow of air, the greater the evaporating power of the air molecules.

5. Inter-molecular forces. The stronger the forces keeping the molecules together in the liquid or solid state the more energy that must be input in order to evaporate them.

6. Surface area and temperature: –

Because molecules or atoms evaporate from a liquid’s surface, a larger surface area allows more molecules or atoms to leave the liquid, and evaporation occurs more quickly. For example, the same amount of water will evaporate faster if spilled on a table than if it is left in a cup.

Higher temperatures also increase the rate of evaporation. At higher temperatures, molecules or atoms have a higher average speed, and more particles are able to break free of the liquid’s surface. For example, a wet street will dry faster in the hot sun than in the shade.

Intermolecular forces: –

Most liquids are made up of molecules, and the levels of mutual attraction among different molecules help explain why some liquids evaporate faster than others. Attractions between molecules arise because molecules typically have regions that carry a slight negative charge, and other regions that carry a slight positive charge. These regions of electric charge are created because some atoms in the molecule are often more electronegative (electron-attracting) than others. The oxygen atom in a water (H2O) molecule is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, for example, enabling the oxygen atom to pull electrons away from both hydrogen atoms. As a result, the oxygen atom in the water molecule carries a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms carry a partial positive charge. Water molecules share a mutual attraction—positively charged hydrogen atoms in one water molecule attract negatively charged oxygen atoms in nearby water molecules.

Intermolecular attractions affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid because strong intermolecular attractions hold the molecules in a liquid together more tightly. As a result, liquids with strong intermolecular attractions evaporate more slowly than liquids with weak intermolecular attractions. For example, because water molecules have stronger mutual attractions than gasoline molecules (the electric charges are more evenly distributed in gasoline molecules), gasoline evaporates more quickly than water.

Experiment no.1

Aim:

To compare the rate of evaporation of water, acetone and diethyl ether.

Materials required:

China dish, Pipette, Beaker, Weighing balance Measuring flask, Acetone, Distilled water, Diethyl ether, Watch

PROCEDURE:

1. Take three china dishes.

2. Pipette out 10 ml of each sample.

3. Dish A-Acetone

Dish B-Water

Dish C-Diethyl ether

4. Record the weights before beginning the experiment.

5. Leave the three dishes undisturbed for ½ an hr and  then wait patiently.

6. Record the weights of the samples after the given time.

7. Compare the prior and present observations.

OBSERVATION:

Water

(gm)

Acetone

(gm)

Diethyl

Ether

(gm)

Weight of dish 50 50 50
Weight of (dish + substance) before evaporation 60 57.85 57
Weight of (dish + substance) after evaporation 59.8 55.55 54.33
Weight of substance evaporated 0.2 2.30 2.67

Inference and conclusion: –

The rate of evaporation of the given three liquids is in order :-

Diethyl Ether>Acetone>Water

Reason: –

Water has extensive hydrogen bonding in between oxygen atom of one molecule and hydrogen atom of another molecule. But this is absent in the case of acetone.

Experiment no.2

Aim:-To study the effect of surface area on the rate of evaporation of Diethyl ether.

Requirements

Three Petri dishes of diameter 2.5 cm,5 cm, and 10 cm with covers ,10 ml pipette and stopwatch.

Procedure

1. Clean and dry the Petri dishes and mark them as A,B,C.

2. Pipette out 10 ml of Diethyl ether in each of the Petri dishes a, band C cover them immediately.

3. Uncover all the three Petri dishes simultaneously

and start the stopwatch.

4. Note the time when diethyl ether evaporates completely from each Petri dish.

Observation

Petri dish Mark Diameter of Petri dish Time taken for complete evaporation
A 2.5 cm 11min 45sec
B 5.0 cm 8min 45sec
C 7.5 cm 6min 30sec

Result

It will be observed that maximum evaporation occurs in Petri dish with largest diameter followed  by smaller and the smallest Petri dish. It is, therefore , concluded that rate of evaporation increases with increase in surface area.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • NCERT CHEMISTRY XII
  • ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009

You can find other Chemistry Projects here.

Electrolysis of products of Potassium Iodide

Study the electrolysis of products of Potassium Iodide (KI)

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Theory 4
II. Procedure 8
III. Observation 9
IV. Precaution 10
V. Conclusion 10
VI. Bibliography 11

THEORY

Electrolysis-

It is defined as a process of decomposition of an electrolyte by the passage of electricity through its aqueous solution  or molten (fused) state.

Mechanism  Of  Electrolysis-

Whenever an electrolyte is dissolved in water or is taken in the molten state, the electrolyte dissociates to produce Positively and Negatively charged ions. On passing electric current, the positively charged ions move towards the cathode and hence are called cations, whereas the negatively charged ions move towards the anode and hence are called anions. On reaching their respective electrodes, ions lose their charge and become neutral. The cations accept electrons from the cathode to become neutral species. Thus, oxidation occurs at the anode while reduction takes place at the anode. The conversion of ions into neutral species at their respective electrodes is called Primary change. The product formed as a result of primary change may be collected as such or it may go under a Secondary change to form the final products.

Quantitative Aspects Of Electrolysis-

Michael Faraday was the first scientist who described the quantitative aspects of electrolysis.

Faraday’s Laws Of Electrolysis-

First Law:-

The amount of chemical reaction which occurs at any electrode during electrolysis by a current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the electrolyte (solution or melt).

Second Law :-

The amounts of different substances liberated by the same quantity of electricity passing through the electrolytic solution are proportional to their chemical equivalent weights (atomic mass of metal – number of electrons required to reduce the cations).

Products Of Electrolysis –

Products of electrolysis depend on the nature of material being and the type of electrodes being used .If the electrode is inert, it does not participate in the chemical reaction and acts only as source or sink for electrons. On the other hand, if the electrode is reactive, it participates in the electrode reaction. Thus, the products of electrolysis may be different for reactive and inert electrodes. The products of electrolysis depend on the different oxidizing and reducing species present in the electrolytic cell and their standard electrode potentials. Moreover, some of the electrochemical processes although feasible, are so slow kinetically that at lower voltages these do not seem to take place and extra potential (called overvoltage) has to be applied, which makes such processes more difficult to occur.

Reactions involved:-

In the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of KI, I ions are oxidized at the anode preferentially to water molecules. Possible reactions at anode are as follows:-

2 I(aq) I2 (g) + 2 e …………(1)

2 H2O (l) 4 H+ (aq) + O2 + 4e ………….(2)

Reaction (1) occurs in preference to reaction (2) due to standard electrode potential value of the following reaction.

I2 (g) + 2 e 2 I(aq)                           …………(3)

Eo/volt = + 0.53V

4 H+ (aq) + O2 (g) + 2e2 H2O (l)                …………(4)

Eo/volt = + 1.53V

Possible cathode reactions are:

K+ (aq) + e K (s)                                                 …………..(5)

Eo/volt = – 2.92V

2 H2O (l) + 2e H2 (g) + 2 OH(aq)                      …………..(6)

Eo/volt = – 0.83V

Eo value of reduction reaction (5) is much smaller than that of reaction (6). Thus, reaction (6) occurs competitively over reaction (5) at cathode .Thus, violet colour of anode is due to formation of iodine and its subsequent reaction with starch  Pink colour at cathode is due to formation of OH ions which also render the solution alkaline. OHions give pink colour with phenolphthalein.

Procedure

Prepare 0.1M solution of potassium iodide. Fix a U- shaped tube in a stand and insert two graphite electrodes into both ends of the U- tube through the corks. Assemble the apparatus as shown in the figure. Take about 30ml of 0.1M solution of potassium iodide in a 100ml beaker add five or six drops of phenolphthalein solution and five to six drops of freshly prepared starch solution. Stir the solution and transfer it into an electrolysis – tube fitted with graphite electrodes. Pass electric current through the electrolyte and observe the appearance of colour. A pink colour appears at the cathode and a violet colour appears at the anode. Bubble formation also occurs on the surface of the cathode.

Observations

TEST  SOLUTIONS OBSERVATIONS INFERENCE
Aqueous solution of potassium iodide with five drops of phenolphthalein and five drops of starch solution. At the anode, violet colour.

At the cathode:

(i )Pink colour

(ii)Formation of bubbles

Free iodine is evolved.

(i)OH ion is formed

(ii)Hydrogen is evolved

Precautions

1)    Both the electrodes should be loosely fixed into the U- tube so as to allow the escape of evolved gasses.

2)    Electrodes should be cleaned before use.

Conclusion

In the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of potassium iodide, I ions are oxidized at the anode preferentially to water molecules. Violet colour at anode is due to iodine. Pink colour at cathode is due to formation of OH ions which renders the solution alkaline. OH ions give pink colour with phenolphthalein.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • NCERT CHEMISTRY XII
  • ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009

You can find other Chemistry Projects here.

Effect of Metal Coupling on the Rusting of Iron – Chemistry Project

 

Study of the Effect of Metal Coupling on the Rusting of Iron

 

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Introduction 4
II. Aim Of The Project 6
III. Requirement 7
IV. Procedure 8
V. Observation 9
VI. Conclusion 9
VII. Bibliography 10

Introduction:

Metals and alloys undergo rusting and corrosion. The process by which some metals when exposed to atmospheric condition i.e., moist air, carbon dioxide form undesirable compounds on the surface is known as corrosion, The compounds formed are usually oxides . Rusting is also a type of corrosion but the term is restricted to iron or products made from it. Iron is easily prone to rusting making its surface rough. Chemically, rust is a hydrated ferric oxide

Titanic‘s bow exhibiting microbial corrosion damage in the form of ‘rusticles’

Rusting an Electrochemical Mechanism ;

Rusting may be explained by an electrochemical mechanism. In the presence of moist air containing dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide, the commercial iron behave as if composed of small electrical cells. At anode of cell, iron passes into solution as ferrous ions. The electron moves towards the cathode and form hydroxyl ions. Under the influence of dissolved oxygen the ferrous ions and hydroxyl ions interact to form rust, i.e., hydrated ferric oxide.

Methods of Prevention of Corrosion and Rusting

Some of the methods used to prevent corrosion and rusting are discussed here :

1) Barrier Protection : In this method , a barrier film is introduced between Iron surface and atmospheric air. The film is obtained by painting, varnishing etc.

2) Galvanization ; The metallic iron is covered by   a layer of more reactive metal such as zinc. The active metal losses electrons in preference of iron. Thus, protecting from rusting and corrosion.

Galvanized Metals

Aim of the project

In this project the aim is to investigate effect of the metals coupling on the rusting of iron. Metal coupling affects the rusting of iron . If the nail is coupled with a more electro-positive metal like zinc, magnesium or aluminium rusting is prevented but if on the other hand , it is coupled with less electro – positive metals like copper , the rusting is facilitated.

Requirement :

1)Two Petri dishes

2) Four test – tube

3) Four iron nails

4) Beaker

5) Sand paper

6)Wire gauge

7) Gelatine

8) Copper, zinc & magnesium strips

9)Potassium ferrocyanide solution

10)Phenolphthalein

Procedure

1)At first we have to clean the surface of iron nails with the help of sand paper.

2) After that we have to wind zinc strip around one nail, a clean copper wire around the second & clean magnesium strip around the third nail. Then to put all these three and a fourth nail in Petri dishes so that they are not in contact with each other.

3) Then to fill the Petri dishes with hot agar solution in such a way that only lower half of the nails are covered with the liquids .Covered Petri dishes for one day or so.

4) The liquids set to a gel on cooling. Two types of patches are observed around the rusted nail, one is blue and the other pink. Blue patch is due to the formation of potassium ferro-ferricyanide where pink patch is due to the formation of hydroxyl ions which turns colourless phenolphthalein to pink.

Observation

S.No. Metal Pair Colour of the patch Nails rusts or not
1 Iron- Zinc
2 Iron -Magnesium
3 Iron- Copper
4 Iron – Nail

Conclusion

It is clear from the observation that coupling of iron with more electropositive metals such as zinc and magnesium resists corrosion and rusting of iron. Coupling of iron with less electropositive metals such as copper increases rusting.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • NCERT CHEMISTRY XII
  • ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009

You can find other Chemistry Projects here.

Study the Diffusion of Solids in Liquids – 2 – Chemistry Project

Introduction

When substances are brought in contact with each other, they intermingle with each other. This phenomenon is known as diffusion. Diffusion takes place very rapidly in case of gases, to a lesser extent in case of liquids, and not at all in the case of solids.

However, diffusion of solids in liquids does take place, albeit at a very slow rate. If a solid is kept in contact with excess of solvent in which it is soluble, some portion of the solid gets dissolved. This process is known as dissolution of a solid in liquid, and it takes place due to the diffusion of solid particles into liquid medium.

Molecules of solute are in constant random motion due to the collision between molecules of solute and that of the solvent. It is this physical interaction between solute-solvent particles that leads to diffusion.

Objective

To demonstrate that rate of diffusion depends upon the following factors:

Temperature: As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the particles increases. Thus, the speed of particles also increases, which in turn increases the rate of diffusion.

Size of the particle: As the size of particle increases, rate of diffusion decreases. This is because the particles become less  mobile in the solvent.

Mass of the particle: As the mass of the particle increases, the rate of diffusion decreases; as the particle becomes less mobile.

Experiment 1

To study diffusion when copper sulphate is brought in contact with water (liquid).

Requirements

Copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals, 100 mL beaker

Procedure

 Take about two grams of copper sulphate crystals in 100 mL beaker.

 Add about 50 mL of water and allow it to stand for few minutes.

 Note the development of blue colour in water.

 Allow to stand further till it is observed that all copper sulphate disappears.

 Note the blue colour change in water.

Conclusion

When solids such as copper sulphate are brought in contact with liquids such as water, intermingling of substances, i.e., diffusion takes place.

Experiment 2

To study the effect of temperature on the rate of diffusion of solids in liquids.

Requirements

Copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals, three 100 mL beakers, watch glass, wire gauge, burner, tripod stand, thermometer, stop watch.

Procedure

 Take five gram of copper sulphate each in three beakers.

 Pour 100 mL of distilled water slowly in one of the beakers.

 Cover this beaker with a watch glass.

 Pour 100 mL of cold water in a second beaker slowly.

 Place a third beaker containing 100 mL of water on a tripod stand for heating.

 Observe the diffusion process which begins in all the beakers.

 Record of copper sulphate the time taken for the dissolution of copper sulphate in all the three cases.

Observations

S. No. Crystal Size Time Taken to Diffuse
1 Big 19 minutes
2 Medium 13 minutes
3 Small 5 minutes

Conclusion

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the order as given below:

Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1

Thus, the rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.

Experiment 3

To study the effect of size of particles on the rate of diffusion of solids in liquids.

Requirements

Graduated 100 mL measuring cylinders, copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals of different sizes, stop watch.

Procedure

 Add 50 mL of water to each of the three cylinders.

 Take five gram each of big size, medium size, small size crystals of copper sulphate, and add them separately in three cylinders.

 Allow them to stand for sometime.

 Note the time taken for blue colour to reach any fixed mark in each of the cylinders and note the observations.

Observations

 

S. No. Crystal Size Time Taken to Diffuse
1 Big 19 minutes
2 Medium 13 minutes
3 Small 5 minutes

Conclusion

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the order as given below:

Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1

Thus, smaller particles undergo diffusion more quickly than bigger particles.

Result

 When solids such as copper sulphate are brought in contact with liquids such as water, intermingling of substances, i.e., diffusion takes place.

 The rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.

 Small particles undergo diffusion more quickly than bigger particles.

Bibliography

Chemistry (Part I) – Textbook for Class XII; National Council of Educational Research and Training

Concepts of Physics 2 by H C Verma; Bharti Bhawan (Publishers & Distributors)

Bibliography

NCERT Chemistry for Class XII

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