## To find the weight of a given body using the parallelogram law of vectors

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## Aim :

To find the weight of a given body using the parallelogram law of vectors.

## Apparatus :

A vertical wooden board with 2 pulleys weight, two hangers, a string for sheets of paper, drawing pins, a strip of mirror, drawing pins, pencil, metre scale, set square, wooden block, protractors, string, thread and a spring balance

## Theory:

Law of parallelogram of forces:

When two forces react simultaneously at a point are represented in magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then their resistant is represented both in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the point of intersecting of two forces.

## Procedure:

1. Clamp the board in vertical position by a plumb line and pin the sheet of paper on it with drawing pins.
2. The short string in middle of first string to make a knot at 0. Tie the unknown weight at other end. Arrange them on pulleys.
3. Adjust the weight so that know is in middle of the paper.
4. When the know comes to rest, mark it on paper.
5. Repeat the procedure a couple of times.
6. Remove hangers along with weights and carefully weigh each hanger and slotted weight.
7. Keep board flat and join the three points to meet at 0. Select a suitable scale and cut lengths OA and OB.
8. Repeat above set of observation for three more sets of weight.

## Sources of Error:-

• Pulleys may have friction.
• Weights may not be accurate.
• Points may not be marked correctly.
• Weight measured by spring balance may not be much accurate.

## Observations:-

 Forces Slides Resultant for R (g wt) Unknown weight S(g wt) Weight of Spring (g wt)balance Error (g wt) P (g wt) Q (g wt) OA (cm) OB (cm) 200 4 200 4 5.9 295 290 5

## Result

– The unknown weight of given body is found to be 290 g.

## Viva Questions:-

______ represents the resultant of the vector addition in parallelogram law of vector.

Diagonal of the parallelogram

Friction in the pulleys is one of the sources of error in the experiment using Gravesand’s apparatus. True or False.

False

Mass is a vector quantity. True or False.

False

Define Vector

Physical quantities, having both magnitude and direction are called vector quantities.

Grab other Class XI Physics practicals from here.

## To measure the diameter and volume of a given wire using a screw gauge

Grab other Class XI Physics practicals from here.

## Apparatus:

Screw gauge, a thin wire and a metre scale

## Theory:

### Formulae used:

Where MSR = Main scale reading
and, CSR = nxLC
Where n = no of circular scale division coinciding with main scale
LC = Least count of screw gauge
Therefore, total reading = MSR = (nxLC)

ii) If DD be the mean diameter and l be the length of the wire, then volume of wire
V = π(D/2)2l = (πD2l)/4

## Procedure:

### Measurement of the Diameter

1. First of all calculate the pitch and the least count of the given screw gauge.
2. Find the zero error with its proper sign. Even after when the zero error is nil, this fact too should be recorded.
3. Now insert the wire between the screw and the steed of the screw gauge. Move the screw forward by rotating the ratchet till the wire is gently gripped between the screw and the steed. Stop rotating the ratchet the moment you hear click sound. In case the ratchet is not properly functioning, rotate the circular cap with the help of your fingers, till your fingers start slipping. Do not press or rotate the cap too hard. Record the readings on the main scale and the circular scale as explained above and add the two readings. This gives the observed diameters.
4. Take the mean of these observed diameters.
5. Apply the zero correction with its proper sign to the mean observed diameter and find the correct diameter.
6. Make a record of your observations as detailed below.
7. Measure the length of wire by stretching it along a metre scale.

## Sources of Error:-

• Backlash error: It occurs due to wear and tear of the screw threads, it is observed that reversing the direction of rotation of the thimble, the tip of the screw does not start moving in the opposite direction immediately, but remains stationary for a part of rotation. This is called back lash error. It occurs if we move the screw in one direction and then in opposite directions repeatedly.
• Zero error: If on bringing the flat end of the screw in contact with the stud, the zero mark of the circular scale coincides with the zero mark on base line of the main scale, the instrument is said to be free from zero error. Otherwise an error is said to be there.

## Observations

:-

 Main/Linear Scale Reading (M.S.R.) Circular Scale Reading (C.S.R.) Total observed reading (D) = M.S.R. + (nxLC) (mm) No of circular scale division in line with main scale (n) n x L.C.(mm) 8 43 0.043 8.043 8 47 0.047 8.047 8 46 0.046 8.046

Length of the wire = 27cm

## Calculations

:-

Mean Observed Reading = (8.043+8.047+8.046)/3 = 8.0453 mm

Volume of wire = (πD2l)/4 = π(8.0453/1000)2(0.27)/4 = 0.00001372757m3

## Diagram

:-

Result – The diameter of the given wire is measured by using a screw gauge is 8.0453 mm. The volume of the wire is 0.00001372757m3.

## Viva Questions:-

What is least count?

The distance through which the screw advances when it is rotated through one division of the head scale.

What is the least count of the screw gauge if the head scale of a screw gauge contains 100 divisions and its pitch is 1 mm?

0.01mm

Screw gauge is less reliable than Vernier calliper in measuring the dimensions of an object. True or False.

False

What is screw gauge commonly referred to as?

Micrometer

What is ratchet’s function in a screw gauge?

Ratchet prevents screw gauge from undue tightening.

Grab other Class XI Physics practicals from here.

## Canteen Management – Class XII C++ Project

You can grab other class XII projects from here.

## COMPUTER SCIENCE  PROJECT FILE ON CANTEEN MANAGEMENT

• Certificate
• Acknowledgement
• Working description of project
• Header files and their purpose
• Files generated
• Coding & outputs
• Bibliography

### ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to My Computer Science Teacher Ms. ____________ in providing a helping hand in this project. Her unflagging patience, creativity and immense knowledge that she shared with me have proved highly beneficial to me and have made my Project File both possible and successful.

Name :
Class :

### HEADER FILES USED AND THEIR PURPOSE

1. IOSTREAM.H – for file handling, cin and cout
2. PROCESS.H – for exit() function
3. CONIO.H – for clrscr() and getch() functions
4. STDIO.H – for standard I/O operations
5. DOS.H – for execution of program
6. STRING.H – for string handling
7. IOMANIP.H–for C++ streams I/O manipulators

### FILES GENERATED

PROGRAM FILE

CANTEENMANAGEMENT.CPP

OBJECT FILE

CANTEENMANAGEMENT.OBJ

EXECUTION FILE

CANTEENMANAGEMENT.EXE

### WORKING DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

This program is designed to keep the friend’s record.

This program consists of five options as follows

1. TO PURCHASE
2. TO SHOW DETAILS
4. TO SHOW QUANTITY AVAILABLE
5. TO EXIT

CODING

/* &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

& COMPUTER SCIENCE PROJECT WORK&

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

SOFTWARE FOR THE USE OF CANTEEN DEPARTMENT

////INTRODUCTION////

/////////////////////////////

//NAME:-  /

//CLASS:-  /

//ROLL NO.:-  /

/////////////////////////////

####################

#CANTEEN MANAGEMENT#

#################### */

#include<iostream.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<string.h>

#include<stdio.h>

#include<process.h>

#include<iomanip.h>

#include<dos.h>

main()

{

clrscr();

unsigned int bir=10,per=36,der=110,mur=8,par=110,cor=90,twr=1199, lur=17,tir=107,

rer=1499;

unsigned int m=0,n=0,o=0,p=0,q=0,r=0,s=0,t=0,u=0,v=0;

char name[50],rank[10],pu,c[20],a[15],b[15],ok;

clrscr();

printf(“\n +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++”);

printf(“\n + *** +”);

printf(“\n + ***** +”);

printf(“\n + ******* +”);

printf(“\n + ********* +”);

printf(“\n + *********** +”);

printf(“\n + ************* +”);

printf(“\n + *************** +”);

printf(“\n + ***************** +”);

printf(“\n + ******************* +”);

printf(“\n + ********************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ***************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ******************************* +”);

printf(“\n + ********************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *************************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ***************************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ******************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + ********************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************WELCOME*********************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ********************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + ******************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *************************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ********************************* +”);

printf(“\n + ******************************* +”);

printf(“\n + ***************************** +”);

printf(“\n + *************************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********************** +”);

printf(“\n + ********************* +”);

printf(“\n + ******************* +”);

printf(“\n + ***************** +”);

printf(“\n + *************** +”);

printf(“\n + ************* +”);

printf(“\n + *********** +”);

printf(“\n + ********* +”);

printf(“\n + ******* +”);

printf(“\n + ***** +”);

printf(“\n + *** +”);

printf(“\n +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++”);

getch();

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\t w w e e e e e e e e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w w e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w w e e e e e e e e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w w e e e e e e e e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w w e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w w w e l “;

cout<<“\n\n\t w w e e e e e e e e l l l l l l l l”;

cout<<“\n\n\n\n c c c c c c c o o o o o o o m m e e e e e e e e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e e e e e e e e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e e e e e e e e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e “;

cout<<“\n\n c o o m m m m e “;

cout<<“\n\n c c c c c c c o o o o o o o m m m e e e e e e e e “;

getch();

clrscr();

main:;

cout<<“\n\n\n\t\t\t AFFWA CANTEEN MANAGEMENT”;

cout<<“\n\n\nCONSUMER INFORMATION”;

cout<<“\n\n\n\n NAME:”;

gets(name);

cout<<“\n RANK:”;

gets(rank);

cout<<“\n SERVICE NO.:”;

cin>>a;

cout<<“\n SMART CARD NO.:”;

cin>>b;

cout<<“\n PHONE NO.:”;

cin>>c;

cout<<“\n ENTER BILL NO.:”;

cin>>i;

again:;

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\2.DETAILS”;

cout<<“\n\n\n\3.NEW CUSTOMER”;

cout<<“\n\n\n\4.QUANTITY AVAILABLE”;

cout<<“\n\n\n\5.EXIT”;

cin>>d;

clrscr();

switch(d)

{

case 1:

cout<<“\nITEMS\t\t\t\t\t\t\t RATE(RS)”;

cout<<“\n\n\nBISCUTE\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t10 “;

cout<<“\n\nPEPSODENT\t\t\t\t\t\t\t36”;

cout<<“\n\nDENIM POWDER\t\t\t\t\t\t\t110 “;

cout<<“\n\nMUNCH\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t8 “;

cout<<“\n\nPARK AVENUE PERFUME\t\t\t\t\t\t110 “;

cout<<“\n\nCOCONUT HAIR OIL\t\t\t\t\t\t90 “;

cout<<“\n\nTITAN WATCH\t\t\t\t\t\t\t1199 “;

cout<<“\n\nLUX SOAP\t\t\t\t\t\t\t17 “;

cout<<“\n\nTIDE\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t107 “;

cout<<“\n\nREEBOK SHOES\t\t\t\t\t\t\t1499 “;

start:

cout<<“\n\n\nDO YOU WANT TO PURCHASE(Y/N):\n”;

cin>>pu;

if(pu==’Y’||pu==’y’)

{switch(pu)

case 1:

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\t\t\t\tPURCHASE LIST”;

bis:;

cout<<“\nBISCUTE(MAX 30): “;

cin>>m;

if(m>30)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller than 30”;

getch();

goto bis;

}

else

abis=qubis-m;

pep:;

cout<<“\nPEPSODENT(MAX 2): “;

cin>>n;

if(n>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller than 2”;

getch();

goto pep;

}

else

apep=qupep-n;

den:;

cout<<“\nDENIM POWDER(MAX 2): “;

cin>>o;

if(o>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 2”;

getch();

goto den;

}

else

mun:;

cout<<“\nMUNCH(MAX 50): “;

cin>>p;

if(p>50)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 50”;

getch();

goto mun;

}

else

amun=qumun-p;

park:;

cout<<“\nPARK AVENUE PERFUME(MAX 2): “;

cin>>q;

if(q>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 2”;

getch();

goto park;

}

else

aperk=quperk-q;

coco:;

cout<<“\nCOCONUT HAIR OIL(MAX 2): “;

cin>>r;

if(r>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 2”;

getch();

goto coco;

}

else

acoc=qucoc-r;

titan:;

cout<<“\nTITAN WATCH(MAX 2): “;

cin>>s;

if(s>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 2”;

getch();

goto titan;

}

else

atit=qutit-s;

lux:;

cout<<“\nLUX SOAP(MAX 10): “;

cin>>t;

if(t>10)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 10”;

getch();

goto lux;

}

else

alux=qulux-t;

tid:;

cout<<“\nTIDE(MAX 2): “;

cin>>u;

if(u>2)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 2”;

getch();

goto tid;

}

else

atid=qutid-u;

ree:;

cout<<“\nREEBOK SHOES(MAX 4): “;

cin>>v;

if(v>4)

{

cout<<“Enter Quantity Smaller then 4”;

getch();

goto ree;

}

else

aree=quree-v;

cout<<“\n”;

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\tAFFWA CANTEEN\n”;

cout<<“\n\n\t\t\t\t CASH MEMO\n”;

cout<<“\n\nBILL NO.:”<<i;

cout<<“\n\nNAME:”;

cout<<name;

cout<<“\n\nRANK:”<<rank;

cout<<“\n\nSERVICE NO.:”<<a;

cout<<“\n\nSMART CARD NO.:”<<b;

cout<<“\n\nPHONE NO.:”<<c;

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n”;

cout<<“===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\nITEMS” <<setw(40)<<“QUANTITY”<<setw(35)<<“PRICE(Rs.)”;

cout<<“===============================================================================”;

if(m>0)

cout<<“\n\nBISCUTE” <<setw(38)<<m<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<m*bir;

if(n>0)

cout<<“\n\nPEPSODENT” <<setw(36)<<n<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<n*per;

if(o>0)

cout<<“\n\nDENIM POWDER” <<setw(33)<<o<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<o*der;

if(p>0)

cout<<“\n\nMUNCH” <<setw(40)<<p<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<p*mur;

if(q>0)

cout<<“\n\nPARK AVENUE PERFUME”<<setw(26)<<q<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<q*par;

if(r>0)

cout<<“\n\nCOCONUT HAIR OIL” <<setw(29)<<r<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<r*cor;

if(s>0)

cout<<“\n\nTITAN WATCH” <<setw(34)<<s<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<s*twr;

if(t>0)

cout<<“\n\nLUX SOAP” <<setw(37)<<t<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<t*lur;

if(u>0)

cout<<“\n\nTIDE” <<setw(41)<<u<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<u*tir;

if(v>0)

cout<<“\n\nREEBOK SHOES” <<setw(33)<<v<<setw(28)<<“Rs.”<<v*rer;

e=m*bir;

f=n*per;

g=o*der;

h=p*mur;

k=q*par;

l=r*cor;

w=s*twr;

x=t*lur;

y=u*tir;

z=v*rer;

sum=e+f+g+h+k+l+w+x+y+z;

cout<<“\n===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\n\nTHANK YOU .\t\t\t VISIT US AGAIN\n”;

getch();

clrscr();

goto again;

}

else

{goto again;

}

case 2:

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\tCANTEEN DETAILS”;

cout<<“\n\n#TIMING:\n\n 11 AM TO 02 PM \n 03 PM TO 05 PM”;

cout<<“\n\n#CANTEEN WILL CLOSED ON TUESDAY”;

cout<<“\n\n#GOODS ONCE SOLD WILL NOT BE EXCHANGED/REPLACED”;

cout<<“\n\n#TAKE YOUR SMART CARD WITH YOU”;

cout<<“\n\n#COLLECT YOUR SMART CARD & BILL AFTER PAYMENT”;

cout<<“\n\n#DO NOT BREAK ANY CANTEEN ITEMS”;

getch();

clrscr();

goto again;

case 3:

goto main;

case 4:

if(m>0||n>0||o>0||p>0||q>0||r>0||s>0||t>0||u>0||v>0)

{cout<<“\n\t\t\tItems Avaliable in Canteen.\n\n\n”;

cout<<“===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\nITEMS” <<setw(40)<<“QUANTITY”;

cout<<“\n===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\n\n\nBISCUTE” <<setw(38)<<abis;

cout<<“\n\n\nPEPSODENT” <<setw(36)<<apep;

cout<<“\n\n\nMUNCH” <<setw(40)<<amun;

cout<<“\n\n\nPARK AVENUE PERFUME”<<setw(26)<<aperk;

cout<<“\n\n\nCOCONUT HAIR OIL” <<setw(29)<<acoc;

cout<<“\n\n\nTITAN WATCH” <<setw(34)<<atit;

cout<<“\n\n\nLUX SOAP” <<setw(37)<<alux;

cout<<“\n\n\nTIDE” <<setw(41)<<atid;

cout<<“\n\n\nREEBOK SHOES” <<setw(33)<<aree;

cout<<“\n*******************************************************************************”;

getch();

goto again;

}

else

{{cout<<“\n\t\t\tItems Avaliable in Canteen.\n\n\n”;

cout<<“===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\nITEMS” <<setw(40)<<“QUANTITY”;

cout<<“\n===============================================================================”;

cout<<“\n\n\nBISCUTE” <<setw(38)<<qubis;

cout<<“\n\n\nPEPSODENT” <<setw(36)<<qupep;

cout<<“\n\n\nDENIM POWDER” <<setw(33)<<quden;

cout<<“\n\n\nMUNCH” <<setw(40)<<qumun;

cout<<“\n\n\nPARK AVENUE PERFUME”<<setw(26)<<quperk;

cout<<“\n\n\nCOCONUT HAIR OIL” <<setw(29)<<qucoc;

cout<<“\n\n\nTITAN WATCH” <<setw(34)<<qutit;

cout<<“\n\n\nLUX SOAP” <<setw(37)<<qulux;

cout<<“\n\n\nTIDE” <<setw(41)<<qutid;

cout<<“\n\n\nREEBOK SHOES” <<setw(33)<<quree;

cout<<“\n\n*******************************************************************************”;

getch();

goto again;

}

case 5:

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS”;

sleep(1);

clrscr();

cout<<“\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\t\t\t\t THANKS\n\n\n\t\t\t\tPress any key to Exit…….”;

getch();

exit(0);

default:

getch();

goto again;

}

//getch();

// return 0;

}}

### BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMPUTER SCIENCE IN C++ BY :– SUMITA ARORA

You can grab other class XII projects from here.

## Drawing I-V characteristics graph of p-n junction diode in forward biasing and to find state and dynamic resistance.

You can also get Class XII Practicals on BiologyPhysics, and Physical Education.

Aim : To draw I-V characteristics graph of p-n junction diode in forward biasing and to find state and dynamic resistance.

Apparatus : A p-n junction (semi conductor) diode, a 3 volt battery, a 50 volt battery, a high resistance rheostat, one 0-3 volt voltmeter, one 0-50 volt voltmeter, one 0-100 mA ammeter, a 0-100 uA ammeter, one way key, connecting wires & sand paper.

Theory :

When the p section of the diode is connected to positive terminal and of a battery and n section is connected to negative terminal of the battery then junction is said to be forward bias with an increase in bias voltage the forward current increases slowly in the beginning and then rapidly. At about 0.7 V for SI diode (0.1 V for Ge), the current increase suddenly. The value of forward bias voltage, at which the forward current increases rapidly, is called cut in voltage or threshold voltage.

Procedure

• Make circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
• Make all the connection neat and tight.
• Note at least count and zero error of voltmeter (V) and milliammeter (mA)
• Bring moving contact of the potential divider (rheostat) near the negative end. Insert the key K. Voltmeter V and milliammeter mA will give zero reading.
• Move the contact a little towards the positive end to apply a forward bias voltage (vF) of 0.1 V current remains zero.
• Increase the forward bias voltage up to 0.3 V for Ge diode.
• Current remains zero ( it is due to junction potential barrier of 0.3 V)
• Increase VF to 0.4 V Milli ammeter records a small current.
• Increase Vf in steps to 0.2 V and note the corresponding current. Current increase first slowly and then rapidly till Vf becomes 0.7 V.
• Make VE = 0.72 V. The current increases suddenly. This represents “ forward breakdown” stage.
• If the VF increases beyond the “ forward breakdown” stage the forward current doesn’t change much. Now take out the key at once.

Result

This junction resistance for forward bias :

Resistance (static ) = 28.5 ohm.

Dynamic resistance = 0.02 ohm.

Precaution

• All connection should be neat and tight.
• Key should be used in circuit and opened when not in use.
• Forward bias voltage beyond breakdown shouldn’t be applied.

Sources of error

The junction diode applied may be faulty.

Circuit diagram

Observation Table

 S No Potential diff across diode (v) Current (A) 1 0.1 0 2 0.2 0 3 0.3 0 4 0.4 0 5 0.5 0 6 0.54 1 7 0.6 2 8 0.62 4 9 0.64 5 10 0.66 10 11 0.68 13 12 0.7 20 13 0.7 25 14 0.72 30 15 0.72 35

Calculation

Viva question

What is a function ?

It is a common surface of n type and p type semiconductor.

What is junction potential barrier ?

The potential difference between junction ends of the two types of semi conductor is called junction potential barrier.

What are the two types of biasing ?

1 forward biasing 2 Reverse biasing

Why is a forward bias so called ? How does it affect junction resistance ?

Forward bias so called because it makes free charge carrier to move forward towards junction . It increases the junction resistance (make less).

You can also get Class XII Practicals on BiologyPhysics, and Physical Education.

## Converting the given galvanometer into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same

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Aim : To convert the given galvanometer into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same .

Apparatus : A Weston type galvanometer , a voltmeter of 0-3 V range , a battery eliminator , two resistance boxes , the one way key , a rheostat , connecting wires .

Theory : the series resistance required for conversion ,

R=V/Ig-G

Where V is the range of conversion .

Procedure :

1. Calculate the value of series resistance R to be connected In series with the galvanometer for the given V .
2. Connect a resistance box in series with the galvanometer and take out the plug of R . The galvanometer is now ready for use as voltmeter of range V volts .
3. For verification , make the connection as shown in diagram . A and B are the fixed terminals and C is the variables terminals .
4. Take out the plugs of calculated R from the resistance box . Insert a key K and adjust the movable contact of the rheostat so that deflection in the galvanometer becomes maximum .
5. Note the readings of voltmeter and galvanometer . Convert the galvanometer reading into volts.
6. Find the difference , if any between the readings of voltmeter and galvanometer . The difference gives the error .
7. Move the variable contact C and take five observation covering whole range of voltmeter .

Result

As the difference in actual and measured value of potential difference is very small , the conversion is perfect .

Precaution

1. Length of the shunt wire should be neither too short nor too long .

2. The voltmeter used for verification should preferable be of the same range as the range of conversion .

3. Value of required series resistance should be calculated accordingly .

Sources of error

The connection may be loose .

The emf of the cell or battery may be variable .

Circuit diagram :-

Observation

Resistance of given galvanometer (G) 60 ohm

No of division (n)=10

Current (Jg) =nk=0.00028A

Range of conversion = V

=0-3 V

Resistance to be placed in series = Rs

Rs =V/Ig-G

Rs =3/0.00028 -60.7

Rs = 10653.5 Ohm

Verification

V1 =3V

V2=2.8 V

% error = 3-2.8/3 x 100

=0.2/3 x 100

=6.67 %

Viva question

Why is a Galvanometer not suitable to work as an ammeter .

A galvanometer has more resistance and less current . carrying capacity from those required in ammeter . It will damage if large current flows through it .

What is a shunt ?

A small resistance connected in parallel with a galvanometer is called shunt .

Why is a galvanometer not suitable to work as voltmeter ?

A galvanometer has less resistance and more current carrying capacity from those required by a voltmeter .

How is a galvanometer converted into a voltmeter ?

A galvanometer is converted into a voltmeter by connecting a high resistance in series with the galvanometer coil.

What happens when a voltmeter is converted in series in a circuit ?

The voltmeter cannot measure the potential difference in the circuit because overall resistance of circuit increases .

You can also get Class XII Practicals on BiologyPhysics, and Physical Education.

## Finding the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graph between u and v

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Aim : To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graph between u and v.

Apparatus : An optical bench with three upright (central upright fixed , two outer uprights with lateral movements ), a convex lens with lens holder , two optical needle , (one thin , one thick ) a knitting needle and a half meter scale .

Theory : The relation between u , v and for a convex lens is

1/f= 1/v – 1/u Where f=focal length of convex lens

i/f = u-v/uv u =distance of object needle from optical center of the lens (-)

f =uv/u-v v = distance of image needle from optical from optical center of lens (+)

Procedure

1. Mount the concave mirror in the mirror holder .
2. Obtain the image of a tree or building outside of the window on a screen and move the mirror forward and backwards to get a sharp image on the screen .
3. Measure the distance between mirror and screen (rough focal length ).
4. Clamp the holder with lens fixed upright at 50cm mark .
5. Adjust the lens so that its surface is vertical and upright keep it fixed .
6. Take the thin optical needle as object needle (o).Mount it in outer laterally moveable upright near zero end .
7. Move the object needle upright and clamp it at a distance nearly 1.5 times the rough focal length obtained earlier .
8. Adjust height of the object needle to move its tip lie on a horizontal line through the optical center of the lens .
9. Note the position of the index mark on the base of object needle .
10. With the eye closed , see with the right eye from the other end of the optical bench . An inverted and enlarged image of the object needle will be seen .
11. Mount the thick optical needle in the fourth upright near the other end of the optical bench .
12. Adjust the height of the image needle (thick) so that its tip is seen in line with the tip of the image when seen with the right eye open .
13. Move the eye towards right .The tip will get separated .The image tip and the image needle tip have parallax .
14. Remove the parallax tip to tip .
15. Note the position of the index mark on base of image needle .
16. Record the position of the index mark on the base of upright of lens , the object and image needle .
17. Find index correction (if any ) as described for distance between optical center of lens and tip of image or object needle .
18. Move object needle upright towards mirror in steps of 1 cm to get observation .Repeat the experiment .
19. Move object needle upright towards mirror in steps of 1 cm to get the rest of the observation . Repeat the experiment .

Result

F =uv /u-v f from u-v graph

Diagram

Focal length of convex lens

Observation table

 S No Position of lens (cm) Object length u (inch) Image lens v (in cm) Position of object Position of image 1/u 1/v 1 80 60 32 20 11.2 0.0107 0.0312 2 80 65 34 25 11.6 0.018 0.29 3 80 50 39.3 30 121.3 0.02 0.054 4 80 45 46 35 126 0.122 0.204 5 80 40 48 40 135 0.25 0.181

Total = 0.312 cm 0.0167cm

Calculation

1/f=1/v-1/u

=0.0312 –(0.0167)

0.0479cm

F =1/0.479

Precaution

1. Tip of the object and image needle should lie at same height as the centre of the lens .
2. Parallax should be removed from tip to tip.

Sources of error

1. The upright may not be vertical .
2. Parallax removed may not be perfect .

Viva questions

Define and give lens formula .

The equation relating the object distance (u) , the image distance (v) and lens focal length (f) is called lens formula 1/u+ 1/v = 1/f.

What are the various assumption made in deriving lens formula ?

The following assumption are made :

The lens is thin .

The lens has a small .

The point object lies on to the principal axis and placed perpendicular

The incident ray make small angles with the lens surface on the principal axis .

Which convex lens has more focal length , thick or thin ?

A convex lens has more focal length .

Define optical centre of a lens ?

It is a fixed point inside the lens on its principal axis through which light ray passing undeviated .

What is the principal axis of a lens ?

The straight line passing through the centre of curvature of the curved surfaces of the lens is the principal axis of a lens .

You can also get Class XII Practicals on BiologyPhysics, and Physical Education.

## The Tiger King – English Notes – Class XII

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Q1: Why do you think, the author goes into a detailed identification of the Tiger King through a variety of titles?

Ans No intention of praising the king-immediately after addressing the king with a variety of titles, he brings an anti-climax by telling his readers that his name is shortened to the Tiger King.

Q2: Why does the author introduce the supernatural element in the story and makes the child of ten days speak?

Ans to impress the readers that the prince is a prodigious child and has extraordinary powers.; strange ending tells that destiny is all powerful and inevitable

Q3: Do you think that the author has faith in astrology? Give reasons.

Ans King’s death through a tiger shows author’s faith-state astrologer believes that the `hour of the bull’ Tauras , and the sign under which the prince is born &tiger (Leo)are inimical towards each other.

Q4: What traits of the Maharaja & the British officer are exposed & satirized through the episode of the refusal of permission for tiger hunt by the British officer?

Ans: Maharaja was willful, obstinate, adamant- had a false sense of honour – unreasonable –lack of understanding- lacks practical approach – sacrifice diamonds to preserve his throne.

Q5: Would it be proper to call the Maharaja ‘penny wise, pound foolish’. Give reason.

Ans: Maharaja insists on restricting tiger killing to himself – unwilling to comprehensive – not allowed any other person be even photographed with a dead tiger – send a gift of 50 diamond rings to British officer’s good lady to placate injured feelings of the man & to retain his kingdom.

Q6: ‘______an unforeseen hurdle brought his mission to a standstill’. What was the mission & how did it stop? What do you find amusing in the reasons justifying the hurdle?

Ans: Mission was to shoot 100 tigers- tiger population became extinct – the tigers practised birth control or committed suicide- might have run away from the state.

Q7: Do you agree with the Maharaja’s statement, “you may kill even a cow in self –defence”. Did the king kill tigers purely in self- defence?

Ans: Maharaja did not kill the cow in self defence-killed with the express intention of proving the state astrologer prediction wrong which is unreasonable & illogical.

Q8: comment briefly on the relations between the king & his subjects citing the instances from the story.

Ans: No love between the king & his subjects – king was whimsical & did not care for the welfare of his subjects – most of the officers were not loyal – were cowards & obeyed him only out of fear – e.g hunters decision to hide the truth –dewan letting loose an old tiger in the forest for the king to hunt.

Q9: What moral lesson does the astrologer give to the 100th tiger? What is the significance of the 100th tiger?

Ans: There is a limit to commit a sin. The king’s cup of sin was full to the brim with the death of the 99 tigers & the death of the 100th would be catastrophic & the king’s death would be inevitable.

Q10: The story is a satire on the conceit of those in power. How does the author use dramatic irony in the chapter?

Ans: Dramatic irony- Through this, the author satirises the power of the kings who always expected an affirmative answer from all & whose whims & fancies were the law for the subjects. Their eccentric behaviour leads to catastrophe not only for their subjects but also for other living beings.

Eg:- a)After killing the first tiger the king considers himself powerful but is warned of the 100th tiger.

b)The prophecy at the time of his birth (to describe his death) is ironical as it, not anything amazing as expressed by the author.

c) We expect the baby boy to be scared of tigers after hearing the astrologers but he asks the tigers to beware of him.

d) It was not celebration time for tigers when hunting was banned in Pratibandapuram because the king could hunt them down.

e) The king’s elation at killing the 100th tiger & aiming at it carefully is ironical as he isn’t able to shoot the lamb-like tiger.

f) The king’s manner of death is also ironical.

g) The declaration by the surgeons that the operation is successful is ironical as they aren’t able to save the king.

Q11: Comment on the title. –

King crazy about tiger hunting. Use of bathos to describe his grandeur. Even marries for getting tigers to hunt. Kills 100 tigers to fulfil a vow. Dies of sliver prick of the wooden tiger. At birth warned of death by a tiger. This story revolves around tiger & king.

Q12: There is a Paradox in “the operation was successful. The Maharaja is dead” . What does the author intend to suggest it and how?

Ans: Paradox is clear- Maharaja shouldn’t have been said to be dead as the operation was successful. But the author intends to suggest humour in to make astrology triumph in this case-to satirise the obstinacy & pride of the Maharaja. They were scared to bring on record that the operation was the cause of the King’s death as they could be subjected to punishment.

Q13: What does the author want to suggest by creating humour in the story?

Ans: The hypocrisy and hollowness of those in power.

Q14: . How is the king whimsical?

Ans: because just to prove his bravery he kills 100 tigers & was ready to marry anyone( rather he just got married) so that he could complete his count of 100 tigers.

## The Last Lesson – English Notes – Class XII

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The Last Lesson

1) What was the narrator’s great dread when he started for school & why? How did he plan to escape the scolding? What was much more tempting than the rules for participles? ‘I had the strength to resist’. What does he resist & how? What does this show about him?

Ans–Dread was of a scolding from M. Hamel who would be asking questions on participles that day & the narrator hadn’t learnt them. He felt that he would run away & spend the day out of doors as it was warm & bright outside. The chirping of the birds in the woods & the Prussian soldiers drilling in the open field was much more tempting to see & enjoy than the rules for participles. But he resisted this temptation by saying that he had strength to resist all this & hurried off to school. It shows that he had self-restrain.

2) What is the significance of the terms ‘the Prussian soldiers were drilling’, ‘draft’, ‘lost battles’?

Ans–They all remind of the Prussian invasion of France & the soldiers were getting military exercises in & around the town to highlight the loss of political freedom & force their presence on the people of Alsace. ‘Draft’ is a scheme or a written version of a speech or document enforcing compulsory military service for the people of Alsace by joining the Prussian army. ‘Lost battles’ are the wars they have lost against the Prussian army. All these terms highlight the grim atmosphere of the war.

3) The school child’s plight is similar to the condition of the soldiers drilling. Comment.

Ans–The child’s wanting to run away is a symbol of his love for freedom like other children but like the soldiers, he too is bound to the system. He like the soldiers can’t break free whether he likes his school or not.

4) Who was Wachter? What is the significance of his comment “You’ll get to your school in plenty of time”?

Ans– He was a blacksmith who stood with other people & his apprentice reading the bulletin board & commented thus in response to the order he had read which barred the teaching of French in schools. Franz did not understand the significance of his words & thought that he was making fun of him as he was hurrying to school for being late so that he could escape a scolding from M. Hamel.

5) Usually, when school began, there was a great bustle. Comment. ‘Now it was all so still!’ Explain. What does he refer to? Why was it like a Sunday morning? ‘The whole school seemed strange & solemn.’ Why? How?

Ans– When school began the bustle could be heard in the street. The sound of the opening & closing of desks, lessons repeated in unison loudly & the teacher’s ruler rapping on the table could be heard daily. But today all was still. It was like a quiet Sunday morning as through the window he saw his classmates sitting in their places, M. Hamel walking up & down with his ruler under his arm & the atmosphere was tense & grim.

6) How was the commotion significant for Franz? What had he counted on & why? Why did he blush & feel frightened? The narrator’s plan to enter school unnoticed was foiled. How?

Ans– The narrator was late to school & wanted to enter the class during the bustle to escape being noticed so that he would not be scolded by M. Hamel. But when he entered, the school atmosphere was so still & silent that he felt frightened & blushed to enter the class by opening the door in front of everybody.

7) ‘But nothing happened’. What had Franz expected to happen? How did M. Hamel behave & appear different from other days?

Ans–The statement is ironical as Franz had expected to be scolded by M. Hamel for being late to school and not learning the rules of participles, but he talked to him very kindly & asked him to take his seat quickly as they were beginning with their lesson. He saw that the usually vacant back benches were occupied by the village elders. After he got over his fright he saw that his teacher was dressed differently as he did on inspection or prize days. He wore his beautiful green coat, frilled shirt & little black embroidered silk cap. He was surprised as it was not a special day & yet there were so many changes in the school & teacher’s behaviour & appearance.

8) What surprised Franz most in the class? Comment on the significance of ‘Everybody looked sad’. Who & why?

Ans– On the back benches that were always empty, he found villagers like old Hauser, the former mayor, the former postmaster & many others sitting. They had brought old primers & held them open ready for them to read. They all looked sad because it was the last French class & lesson they were attending according to orders from Berlin & they all realized their mistake of postponing the learning of French till now & the lack of political freedom & identity they would face from the next day.

9) What did M. Hamel announce mounting his chair? Which words were a thunderclap for the narrator & why? Whom does he call ‘wretches’ & why?

Ans– The announcement of M. Hamel was a thunderclap when he said that an order had come from Berlin to teach German in the schools of Alsace & Lorraine & the new master would arrive the next day. He requested everyone to be attentive as it was their last French lesson. Franz calls the Germans as ‘wretches’ who had put up this order on the bulletin board of the town hall.

10) Explain the significance of Franz’s comment “My last French lesson”. What was his reaction to hearing M. Hamel’s announcement? ‘Absence or parting from something can make us realize its worth’. Comment. ‘Dire situations turn out to be lessons in life’. Comment. How is Franz’s reaction ironical?

Ans– After the announcement, he realizes & regrets the fact that he hadn’t given any importance to the learning of his mother tongue & now had to part with it forever. Regrets – He hardly knew how to write. He didn’t learn his lessons wasting his time seeking birds’ eggs or going sliding on the sear. His books that seemed a nuisance & heavy load ( like books on grammar, history of saints) now seemed to be old friends whom he couldn’t give up. Mr Hamel who seemed to be cranky with his ruler was now someone important for Franz. He had hated things till now but parting from them changed his feelings, which is ironical.

11) What looked like flags & what is the significance of the term ‘flag’ & the words written on the new copies? Explain the significance of ‘will they make the pigeons also sing in German?’

Ans–The new copies which M. Hamel had brought for the students for a lesson in writing with ‘France, Alsace, France, Alsace,’ written on them looked like little flags floating everywhere in the school- room. These words & the term ‘flags’ highlight the sense of nationality & patriotism & the sadness at being deprived of political freedom & identity. The significance of ‘Will———- German?’ is to show the plight of the people who were free as pigeons (which is a symbol of freedom) but are now forced under Prussian dictatorship. They are forced to suffer under linguistic chauvinism where German instead of French would be compulsory for them.

12) How does the theme of The last lesson by Alphonse Daudet relate to the subject of language and culture?

Answer: Alphonse Daudet’s ‘The Last Lesson’ very prominently raises the question of the linguistic and cultural hegemony of the colonial and imperial powers and their lust for controlling the world and influencing their cultures and identities.

The Last Lesson raises the burning question very innocently through the words of little Franz that “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” This raises the question of immorality of imposing imperial (royal/colonial) languages and cultures on the colonies. The child questions that when even the birds and animals can’t be forced to abandon their language and speak other languages then what forces the man to think that it would be a prudent force for other human beings to forcibly accept any language other than theirs.

The language of a country is not only a medium of communication for the people but also the link for identity, once the native language is snatched away from the people. It’s not only the loss of convenient communicating medium but also the loss of identity for people for what they have been and what they might become.

When a small child like Franz can think of the irrationality behind snatching away the right of language and identity from people then why can’t the warlords and colonizers understand the fact?

Justify the title – ‘Last Lesson’

The story ‘The Last Lesson’ highlights the human tendency that there is plenty of time to do things and hence man keeps postponing the lessons of life, oblivious to the fact that life is subject to change. The people of Alsace always thought they have plenty of time to learn the lesson and so did not give much importance to the school. They preferred their children to work on the farms and mills instead of having them learn the lessons. Even Franz the narrator always looked for opportunities to skip the school to collect birds’ eggs. However the unexpected happens and the order is received from Berlin regarding the teaching of German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. It is then that they realize that what they had been evading all this while will now be deprived to  them.

The last French lesson taught by M. Hamel symbolizes the loss of language and the loss of freedom of France. It becomes an emotional lesson rendered by M. Hamel to the villagers signifying the changing order of life, its sensibility, its emotions and rule. The marching of soldiers under the windows represents the dawn of Prussia in France and the defeat of the French people, its language and culture.

The story is aptly titled as it evokes a consciousness in the reader not to put off the things that he can do that day. M. Hamel’s bold ‘Long live France’ on the blackboard becomes an emotional evidence of his sadness, patriotism and finality that is reflected in his motionless posture, his fixed gaze on things in the classroom and his eventual words- ‘School is dismissed – You may go’.

## Keeping Quiet -English Notes – Class XII

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Summary of the poem:

In this poem, the poet has emphasized the need to introspect and bring in the spirit of brotherhood among the people of the world. He wants people to stop talking and stop all movements symbolizing agitation and restlessness till he counts twelve, that is, a short period of time. These moments of silence would be strange and exotic because in our mundane life we are working towards selfish goals, regardless of the other’ requirements and emotions. Hence, this sudden silence would give us an opportunity to introspect. Since we would not speak for a while, barriers between communities would break and a sense of brotherhood would prevail. Man would get an opportunity to realize how he is destroying nature and how he is harming himself. Futile wars against men and nature would be arrested and a new feeling of unity would be experienced. The poet does not want his desire for inactivity to be misunderstood as a state of uselessness. He wants men to learn a lesson from the Earth. The Earth appears to be inactive yet it is selflessly productive. Men too could be productive and progressive without any aggression, selfishness and the urge for destruction.

Q1. Why does the poet advocate silence ?

Ans -The poet advocates silence so that we can get time for introspection. There is a mad rush in the world today. Confusion, tension and stress prevail everywhere. Relaxation is lacking in the world. The poet says us to keep quiet and introspect ourselves so that we can be freed from worldly maladies.

Q2. What is significant about “twelve” in the poem?

Ans. There are twenty-four hours in a day in all, with twelve hours for a half a day. The hours are numbered from one to twelve for both the ante meridiem (a.m.) half of the day and the post meridiem (p.m.) half of the day. 12:00 after a.m. and before p.m. (in the middle of the day) is midday or noon, and 12:00 after p.m. and before a.m. (in the middle of the night) is midnight. A new day is considered to start with the stroke of midnight. Furthermore, the basic units of time (60 seconds, 60 minutes, and 24 hours) can all perfectly divide by twelve.

In scripture, we find twelve associated with  rules. The sun which rules the day and the moon and stars which govern the night move through the twelve signs of the zodiac. The zodiac resides in the great circle of the heavens, which is itself 360 degrees (= 30 x 12).

The Heavenly City of Revelations has twelve gates with the names of the twelve tribes on them. Twelve angels stand at the gates; the walls have twelve foundations garnished with twelve precious stones and in them the names of the twelve apostles. The city is twelve thousand furlongs square, and the twelve gates are twelve pearls. The number twelve is used here symbolically of God’s perfect government.

The importance of 12 in Judaism and Christianity can be found in the Bible. The Twelfth chapter of the Bible starts with God calling Abram to come out of the land he was living in and go where God would tell him. This is the beginning of God’s plan to call out a nation unto him, that would be ruled by God and be a testimony to all the nations of the earth of the one true God. Here we can see the link between perfect government and the number twelve.

There are 12 days of Christmas. Most calendar systems have twelve months in a year. At twelve, the hands of a clock are one. It is Oneness that the poem calls for. Count the letters in the title “Keeping Quiet”, there are twelve. Or, the poet may have used ‘twelve’ for no reason.

Q3. what does the poet advocate to do to create feelings of mutual understanding and unity among human beings ?

Ans. Here the poet is encouraging a unified movement among people, with no discrimination based on race or language. This would be a mass movement for the first time on the face of the earth, and would greatly enhance unity. Let us stop for a moment and not move our hands so much in violence i.e. Let us not fight and argue so much.

Q4.who are those who prepare green wars’ here? What would they do when they introspect for a few moments?

Ans. Those who prepare green wars’ are the people engaged in researching new methods Of warfare like biological weapons eg, nerve gas. They aim at getting the victory even if the entire humanity is wiped out. When they keep quiet they would realize a newness of life. They would put on new clothes and crave for meeting and harmonize with their fellow brothers.

Q5. what does the poet actually mean by keeping quiet when he says that it should not be confused with total inactivity?

Ans. The poet cautions the reader that keeping quiet does not mean total inactivity or resignation to or negation of life. Actually, he means that life, as it happens, should be lived with full involvement, both physically and spiritually. This is clear in his saying ‘ I want no truck with death’.

Q6.what importance does the poet give to The Earth, when he says that it can teach us an essential meaning of life?

Ans. The poet says that when everything seems dead on the surface of the earth, there pulsates and throbs life underneath. It means that the earth should be seen and realized in the right perspective. Keeping still for some time opens up its mysteries when we introspect ourselves vis-à-vis of the earth.

Title – Conveys Neruda’s philosophy of an exotic moment of silence & inactivity which can be an antidote to war, violence, hatred & exploitation. It emphasizes the necessity of quiet introspection creating a feeling of mutual understanding among human beings.

Theme – The poet gives a clarion call for introspection. He highlights how rush, hurry & developments have caused much chaos & man needs to take a pause, a silent moment when he can introspect & create a feeling of mutual understanding among human beings. Stillness here doesn’t mean inactivity because that would mean death. Lost in the rush man has become sad as he is unable to understand himself & others. So a long silence can soothe our feelings removing this sadness.

Stanza 1) ‘Now——-still’-

The poet begins on an exercise of meditation & introspection. He says that till we count twelve, let’s remain still, motionless, quiet as too much rush, activity & development have brought chaos & misfortune & lack of understanding among mankind. So it is better to remain quiet and still.

Stanza 2) ‘For once——-so much’-

The stanza is a call for introspection for human beings who have divided themselves on the basis of race, language & nationalities. The poet says that at least once on the surface of earth let’s not speak in any language because the language has been made as an issue of dispute. People need excuses to fight among themselves by indulging in reasoning disputes & quarrels among themselves. So it is better not to speak in any language. Let’s stop all activities (arms) for a second including weapons to kill & destroy. A pun is used in ‘arm’ which also means weapons. The stanza shows poet’s belief in pacifism (that is a belief that war is wrong & useless for everyone). Development of arms is leading to more destruction.

Stanza 3) ‘It——-strangeness’-

The moment without activity, hurry, spoken words, no movement of arms would be a still moment without even machines & their noise. This silent moment would be an unusual & attractive moment which would not only be unfamiliar but would be enjoyed together by all. In this moment one can experience the strength of togetherness, a sudden strange relationship to which humanity binds itself. Engines are a symbol of civilization & scientific developments which are crushing humane feelings still & introspect the matter. So he wants a world devoid of machines, without rush which is taking away one man from another & increasing greed, violence & chaos in the world.

Stanza 4) ‘Fishermen——-hands’-

‘Fishermen’ here symbolize man’s indiscriminate exploitation of nature for his vested interests. The poet here takes up the global issue of conservation of the aquatic species like whales in the poles & asks fishermen not to harm them. In the last 2 lines through the man gathering salt, he shows that man is so lost in acquiring from nature for a monetary benefit that while getting it he is not bothered about causing harm to himself or others due to this. Poet creates the image of man’s incessant suffering in his efforts to add comforts to his life. He wants a man to get some time from his hectic schedule to reflect at the pain & harm his task has caused to himself & others.

Stanza 5) ‘Those——-doing nothing’-

This stanza supports the poet’s pacifist views as he advises the war mongers to stop such wars against environment & nature (like cutting trees, hunting, poaching, killing aquatic species), wars using poisonous gases & firearms & napalm firebombs because even if they win, the victory would not be enjoyed, as there wouldn’t be any survivors after the war. Rather these war mongers should understand that during peace people are friends & the same become enemies during war. So they should put on their best dresses & go out in the lap of nature with their fellow human beings for a walk. Nature’s company would add a soothing touch to make & enhance the feelings of understanding between human beings & this can be possible only when activity is ceased & introspection is done in the company of nature in silence.

Stanza 6) ‘What I——–death’-

The poet doesn’t want us to misunderstand him as advocating inactivity because by silence he doesn’t mean inactivity which leads to death, degeneration, stagnancy. He wants life or himself to have no association with death because life is about activity, it is an ongoing process. By silence he only means a temporary pause, break or rest from the hurry & rush in life. If we stop focusing on just how to keep our lives moving & could take short intervals in between, then the huge silence would be beneficial for us to interrupt in the sadness caused in man for not being able to understand himself & others & would stop the fear of being threatened with death due to the wars & greed rising by the increase in the machines in the world which has created a rush everywhere.

Stanza 7 & 8) ‘Perhaps——–will go’-

Earth can teach a lesson to mankind. The earth is a symbol of life under apparent stillness. When everything seems dead, the earth remains alive. The never-ending cycle of birth, growth & death goes on in silence teaching man that silence is fruitful & doesn’t mean inactivity. Similarly, evil thoughts can be brought to an end & a new life of peace & tranquillity can be revived. He then brings an end to this session of meditation instructing man to keep quiet & leaves him in deep introspection.

Key Points –

a) The poem is a didactic poem as it teaches a lesson to man to take a break from some routine tasks for a while & indulge in deep introspection for better understanding among human beings.

b) The poem is a nature poem as nature is glorified in the poem as man is urged to learn that birth, growth & death go on in silence in nature & yet no significant activity can be observed, proving the significance of silence.

c) The poem is an antiwar poem as it highlights the poet’s pacifist views when it says that victory in these wars can’t be enjoyed as there wouldn’t be any survivors & he gives a clarion call to warmongers to stop all wars against nature & each other.

d) On what note does the poet conclude the poem? – On a serene & pious note leaving the listeners in an ecstatic & exotic moment of peace. He once again counts up to 12 & asks everyone to be quiet & enjoy the bliss of silence.

e) What is the significance of ‘counting up to 12’? – Commencement of the session of introspection & meditation. When stressed out or in dilemma, the best exercise is to keep quiet, calm the mind & begin counting.

f) How do you know that the poet is not an escapist? – He doesn’t escape or try to run away from the chaos machines & developments are creating. He rather tries to find a solution to the rising trend of demanding wars & not understanding other human beings by asking us to do deep introspection by remaining silent & stopping our activity for sometime.

What is significant about “twelve” in the poem?

There are twenty-four hours in a day in all, with twelve hours for a half a day. The hours are numbered from one to twelve for both the ante meridiem (a.m.) half of the day and the post meridiem (p.m.) half of the day. 12:00 after a.m. and before p.m. (in the middle of the day) is midday or noon, and 12:00 after p.m. and before a.m. (in the middle of the night) is midnight. A new day is considered to start with the stroke of midnight. Furthermore, the basic units of time (60 seconds, 60 minutes, and 24 hours) can all perfectly divide by twelve.

In scripture, we find twelve associated with the rule. The sun which rules the day and the moon and stars which govern the night move through the twelve signs of the zodiac. The zodiac resides in the great circle of the heavens, which is itself 360 degrees (= 30 x 12).

The Heavenly City of Revelations has twelve gates with the names of the twelve tribes on them. Twelve angels stand at the gates; the walls have twelve foundations garnished with twelve precious stones and in them the names of the twelve apostles. The city is twelve thousand furlongs square, and the twelve gates are twelve pearls. The number twelve is used here symbolically of God’s perfect government.

The importance of 12 in Judaism and Christianity can be found in the Bible. The Twelfth chapter of the Bible starts with God calling Abram to come out of the land he was living in and go where God would tell him. This is the beginning of God’s plan to call out a nation unto him, that would be ruled by God and be a testimony to all the nations of the earth of the one true God. Here we can see the link between perfect government and the number twelve.

There are 12 days of Christmas. Most calendar systems have twelve months in a year. At twelve, the hands of a clock are one. It is Oneness that the poem calls for. Count the letters in the title “Keeping Quiet”, there are twelve. Or, the poet may have used ‘twelve’ for no reason.