Chloride (Cl-)

AIM: – To identify the given inorganic compound for its acidic and basic radical.

APPARATUS:- Chemical Reagent, Test Tube, Test Tube holder, Spatula

PROCEDURE:-

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Obervation Inference
Added dilute sulphuric acid to given salt. No effect. Carbonate, sulphide , sulphite, nitrate absent.
Added concentrated sulphuric acid to given salt. Colourless gas with pungent smell evolved. Chloride may be present.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added few potassium dichromate crystals and concentrated sulphuric acid and heated. Passed the vapors through the test tube which contains sodium hydroxide solution. To this yellow solution, added dilute CH3COOH and lead acetate solution. Yellow coloured precipitate is formed. Chloride confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

             K2Cr2O7 + 4NaCl + 6H2SO4 ————→ 2KHSO4 + 4NaHSO3 + 2CrO2Cl2

                                                                                                                                                                   chromyl chloride

                                                                                                                                                            (orange-red vapours)

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Chromate (CrO4)

AIM: – To identify the given inorganic compound for its acidic and basic radical.

APPARATUS:- Chemical Reagent, Test Tube, Test Tube holder, Spatula

PROCEDURE:-

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added dilute sulphuric acid to given salt. Solution turned yellow. Chromate may be present.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added barium chloride solution. Yellow precipitate formed. Chromate confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

Ionic equation:-

CrO42-(aq) + 2H+(aq) –> Cr2O72-(aq)(yellow)

Ba2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) –> BaCrO4(s)(yellow)

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Nitrite (NO2-)

AIM: – To identify the given inorganic compound for its acidic and basic radical.

APPARATUS:- Chemical Reagent, Test Tube, Test Tube holder, Spatula

PROCEDURE:-

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added dilute sulphuric acid to given salt. Reddish brown gas with pungent smell evolved. Nitrite may be present.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added potassium permanganate solution. Pink colour of potassium permanganate discharged. Nitrite confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

Ionic equation:-

NO2 + H2SO4(aq)  –>  NO(g) + SO42- + H2O(l)

2KMnO4(Pink) + 3H2SO4  + 5KNO2 –> K2SO4(Colourless) +  2MnSO4 +5KNO3 + 3H2

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Sulphite (SO3)

AIM: – To identify the given inorganic compound for its acidic and basic radical.

APPARATUS:- Chemical Reagent, Test Tube, Test Tube holder, Spatula

PROCEDURE:-

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added dilute sulphuric acid to given salt. Gas with smell of burning sulphur evolved. Sulphite may be present.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Add barium chloride to the salt. A white precipitate of barium sulphite formed which dissolved in excess hydrochloric acid to give a clear colourless solution. Sulphite confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

Ionic equation:-

Ba2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) –>  BaSO3(s)

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Aldehyde (Organic Salt Analysis)

AIM – To test the presence of aldehyde in the given organic compound.

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added bromine water to solution No Effect Compound is saturated.
Or Or
Pink colour of Bromine water changed to colourless. Compound is unsaturated.
Added drop of blue Litmus to solution. No Effect. Carboxylic Acid and Phenol absent.
Added a few drops 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to the solution. Yellowish -orange precipitate formed. Aldehyde or ketone may be present.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added a few drops of Fehling’s solution A & B. Formation Of red colour. Aldehyde confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

R3C-CR3 + Br2 –> No Effect

OR

R2C=CR2 + Br2  –>  BrR2C-CR2Br

R-CHO + (NO2)2C6H3NHNH2 –>  (NO2)2C6H3NHN=CRH (Yellowish Orange) + H2O

RCHO + 2Cu2+ + 2H2O –> RCOOH + Cu2O(Red) + 4H+

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Alcohol (Organic Salt Analysis)

AIM – To test the presence of alcohol in the given organic compound.

Preliminary Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Added bromine water to solution No Effect Compound is saturated.
Or Or
Pink colour of Bromine water changed to colourless. Compound is unsaturated.

Confirmatory Test:-

Experiment Observation Inference
Warmed with acetic acid and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. Fruity smell is formed. Alcohol confirmed.

Chemical Equations:-

R3C-CR3 + Br2 –> No Effect

OR

R2C=CR2 + Br2  –>  BrR2C-CR2Br

CH3COOH + ROH –> CH3COOR + H2O

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